346 Answered Questions for the topic genetics
How can someone share 50% of their DNA with their parents yet all humans share 99.9%?
I have heard that humans share 99.9% of their DNA with other humans. I have also heard that a child shares 50% of their DNA with their parents. How do I resolve this apparent contradiction? It has... more
How does de-myelination occur in multiple sclerosis?
From what I understand, only the oligodendrocytes are affected in multiple sclerosis, and they are attacked by T cells which cross the blood-brain barrier. This leads me to two questions:1. How is... more
Are STOP codons impacted by base insertion or deletion mutation?
I am learning about base insertion and deletion mutations. An example in my textbook is given below.GUU CCA CAU AUC.So if there is an insertion (of guanine):GUU **G**CC ACA UAU C_ _ (there will be... more
Overlapping genetic information in eukaryotes?
In my research, I look at a lot of gene predictions / annotations. Frequently, I see loci where multiple gene models overlap. I haven't taken a systematic approach to analyzing these cases, but I... more
Where should I start looking for an online gene library?
Is there an online library that includes all known genes in stored in their nucleotide form of all living organisms? I'm presuming that such a database doesn't exist. So to kick of my search, how... more
How do transgenic transformations cause off-target phenotypes?
I read that transgene insertions can cause off-target mutations that result in a phenotype being overly ascribed to the transgene, e.g. the increase of lifespan being ascribed to Sir2... more
Difference between genetic engineering and synthetic biology?
I've recently seen the term *synthetic biology* being used to describe research involving genetic modification of organisms. What is the difference between *synthetic biology* and *genetic... more
How could a species be engineered to go extinct?
Non-biology background here.I read this very interesting article: https://www.wired.com/story/crispr-eradicate-invasive-species/However I am having a hard time wrapping my head around... more
We always say that enzymes are very specific to their substrates, then DNA polymerase can utilize all 4 types of nucleotides as substrates. to which substrate the DNA polymerase is specific?
Which patterns do I have to avoid when modifying the 3'-UTR?
I want to change a pre-miRNA sequence (in my case the pre-miRNA is encoding in a 3'UTR of a gene) and then put it in a lentivirus to see if it is still processed. After modification (permutation of... more
Which functional annotations could be useful?
Analyzing a genome, for a generic gene, which functional annotations (e.g from Gene Ontology) can help understanding its meaning/function or, at least, provide helpful informations? - Annotations... more
Why doesn't crossing over happen in mitosis?
If there was crossing over in mitosis, then there would various nature of somatic cells. May be that's the logic, but what is the mechanism? Why are there no crossover events during mitosis?
Does one parent transmit more DNA to the offspring than the other one?
Does one parent transmit more DNA to the offspring than the other one? Or do both parents always transmit the same amount of genetic material to their offspring?In other words, can a baby be... more
Why are males more likely than females to have autism spectrum disorder?
The male to female ratio in autism spectrum disorder is around 4:1. However it seems ASD is not a simple X-linked disorder. Then how is it possible males are more susceptible than females, if the... more
Why is the strength of genetic drift inversely proportional to the population size?
I saw a concept on the Internet that says "the strength of genetic drift is inversely proportional to the population size". I don't know why they are **inversely proportional**? Can somebody... more
What causes XYY Syndrome?
It's obvious how a misdisjunction can result in klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) but I don't see how this can result in XYY syndrome. Your parents have a collective total of only one Y chromosome so... more
What are the exceptions to Mendel's laws?
**What are the exceptions to the $-$** - Law of dominance - Law of independent assortment - Law of segregation**My knowledge:** *Exception of law of dominance:* - Incomplete dominance In... more
Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene?
Let's say that some piece of DNA would be subject to extreme negative selection if it were independently inherited, but it is very closely linked to an extraordinarily fit gene, and so the complex... more
How do chromosome pairs get "paired up" for protein synthesis?
If my understanding is correct, during interphase a normal human cell will have 46 chromosomes scattered about in the cell nucleus. These chromosomes can be thought of as pairs: there are two... more
Constant or variable number of chiasmata during recombination?
During recombination, is the number of chiasmata consistent for each gamete and are the chiasmata regions consistent within a single organism?
Genetics Human Genome
What are the function(s) of Alu elements in the cell?
My 2008 biology book (1) states that some 10% of the human genome consists of relatively short (~300 nucleotides long) *Alu* elements which do not code for proteins but many of which are... more
In eukaryotes, transcription termination and polyadenylation are coupled. The key shared step is cleavage of the RNA trancript just 3' of the signal sequence. A) Describe what happens to the 5'... more
Genetics Amino Acids
What is the smallest number of amino acids required for life?
Is there any hypothesis on the minimum number of amino acids required for life?
Why would lethal genes evolve?
I've been reading through 'The Selfish Gene' by Dawkins. At a few places in the book he states that incest is damaging because it would give a very high chance of lethal recessive genes becoming... more
Why do ladybugs have a different number of points on their backs?
Everytime I see a ladybug I ask myself this question.Why does every ladybug have a different amount of points on its back? Is it because of its age? Or because of its genes? Is it inheritable?