348 Answered Questions for the topic genetics
Why do ladybugs have a different number of points on their backs?
Everytime I see a ladybug I ask myself this question.Why does every ladybug have a different amount of points on its back? Is it because of its age? Or because of its genes? Is it inheritable?
Why are hybrids infertile?
Let's take a quote from Wikipedia about zebroids.> Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. These zebra donkey hybrids are very rare. In South Africa,... more
How was gene therapy able to cure diseases through the transformation of actively dividing cells?
I thought that gene therapy, when performed on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only. I.e., the effect gradually wears off after a while,... more
Why was it so hard to decode the corn genome?
My teachers growing up told me it was impossible to decode the maize genome. But yet its been done. Why was decoding the genome so significant, and what made it so difficult?
How can the number of genes increase through evolution?
I am aware of the basics of evolutionary theory, however I don't understand how mutations can add genes over time. Am I correct in thinking that creatures within the same species who mutate to have... more
Why do people with Down syndrome get fewer cancers?
I'm coming across some conflicting information regarding the correlation between cancer incidents and trisomy 21. I read a report from nature that discusses how Downs are only a tenth as likely to... more
Out of the Cell: toward the ribosome
Which is the cellular organelle that has two parts: Big and Small?
Are there any mutagens that can undo the mutations they cause?
I was reading a section from my textbook about tautomeric shifts, and it seems to suggest that there are some mutagens that can be directly responsible for the phenomenon. The section is mainly... more
Where do amino acids get attached to tRNA and where is it synthesized?
Some very basic parts of transcription/translation seem to be left out in various literature. I can't find the answer to this anywhere:How exactly is tRNA synthesized? I realize that mRNA is... more
Are there any DNA base sequences that are fully conserved between the genomes of all humans?
That is, they don't differ throughout the entire population. I understand of course that we can't DNA sequence every human, so by "fully" I mean there's an incredibly small probability of there... more
Name for Fertile and Infertile Hybrid animals and Species Classifications.
If you have two distinct species of animals that are closely related, are they a Sub Species? Are they a Sub Species if they can breed and produce fertile offspring? What if they can not produce... more
Validity of the August Weismann mouse-detailing experiment refuting Lamarckism?
Weismann conducted the experiment — [described in Wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Weismann) — of removing the tails of 68 white mice, repeatedly over 5 generations, and reporting... more
Why and how does complexity usually tend to increase through time?
The question of complexity is classic in the very first lectures of evolutionary biology where the teacher usually tries to tell the students that complexity does not necessarily increase and that... more
What method would you use to genotype SNPs in low quality samples?
What method would you use to genotype SNPs in low quality samples? I ideally want to genotype hundreds of SNPs in hundreds of scat samples (very low amount of target DNA, potentially degraded and... more
Are all chromosomes equally susceptible to mutation?
The humans have been around for a few million years, other organisms longer yet. Changes that occur in the genome and propagate (may) eventually throw a new species ... or atleast branch off the... more
What are some (bioinformatic) methods to characterize potentially novel gene transcripts?
I am working with a few novel transcripts of genes- before I confirm their existence experimentally, I would like to perform some bioinformatic analysis. I have already considered coding potential,... more
Hardy Weinberg principle?
The principle is that sum total of all allelic frequencies is 1.Individual frequencies for example can be named p,q.In a diploid cell , p and q represent the frequency of allele A and a... more
How did genome duplication in jawed vertebrates allow gene specialization?
I am currently reading from Chapter 15 in Principles of Life, 2nd Edition:>Many gene duplications affect only one or a few genes at a time, but in some cases entire genomes may be duplicated.... more
How do you merge SNP data with a reference genome?
# My DataI have a 23andMe file listing SNPs in the form:`rsid chromosome position genotypersXXXXX 1 PPPPPP CTrsXXXXX 1 PPPPPP ... more
What's the aim of genetically modifying of foods/organisms?
On news, articles etc. experts talking about **Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms** often mentions about their disadvantages like, - their potential to harm human health - allergies may... more
What is the definition of a mutation?
There are two alleles that determine the sensitivity of a person to Coumadin (a medicine for blood thinners used to treat a stroke etc). Sometimes you encounter the terminology that one has a... more
If a gene is located on the X chromosome, does that mean males are never heterozygous for these genes?
As said in the title I am a little confused on the idea of traits located on the sex chromosomes. The example we worked on in class was haemophilia, a recessive trait located on the X chromosome.... more
Genetics Molecular Biology
Why are some genes dominant over others? What is the mechanism behind it?
If I have a brown eye gene which encodes the protein that is responsible for the brown color and have a blue eye gene as well, what is the reason that my eye color is brown? How does one gene... more
How could a species be engineered to go extinct?
Non-biology background here. I read this very interesting article: https://www.wired.com/story/crispr-eradicate-invasive-species/ However I am having a hard time wrapping my head around... more
How was the Huntington's disease gene's location found?
I read in the book "Why we get sick." by Nesse and Williams that:> Steady detective work and fabulous luck have enabled geneticists to> pinpoint the Huntington's gene on the short arm of... more