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202 Answered Questions for the topic philosophy



Translate the passage into TFL

Pam and Sam will see Us if and only if the theater opens at noon. The theater opens at noon if Sam won't see Us. Therefore, either Pam will see Us or she won'tIf Amanda wins the competition, then... more


Translate the following sentences into TFL

If the bear and the fox are on the box, then either the herring is unhealthy or the cat is on the mat The cat is on the mat if and only if the bear is on the box but the fox is not. The fox is off... more
Philosophy Logic Epistemology


Is 1+1=2 true by definition ?


Why is scientism philosophically wrong?

I think a combination of science and philosophy _alone_ leads to closer to truth. Why is it that it is wrong to think that science _alone_ leads to truth? Isn't empirical truth the only one we can... more

What are the major branches of philosophy?

Philosophy Biology


Whis is bioethics important in the medical field?

Fundamental idea on proving God's existence with science?

I think that proving God's existence or any deity from any culture with the rigors of science is fundamentally absurd. The popular arguments usually involve space-time and the big bang theory. (I... more
Philosophy Ethics Animals


Why is a lion not evil?

One often hears the claim that animals who kill and such, are not in fact evil. The typical example is that of a lion or a tiger that kills a prey. The argument is more or less that the animal acts... more
Philosophy Logic Fallacies


What's so fallacious about the Slippery Slope Fallacy?

When you look at the world, I think it's a rather non-controversial statement that a good percentage, if not a majority, of social problems are caused by people making choices based solely on... more
Philosophy Ethics


What are the ethical problems with flipping a coin to decide in the trolley problem?

My understanding is that John M. Taurek suggests that, in the Trolley Problem, we should flip a coin when deciding between saving 5 lives versus 1 life (assuming we do not know any of these... more


Since words are defined in terms of other words in dictionaries, leading to infinite loops, does it mean natural languages are meaningless?

Since words are defined in terms of other words in dictionaries, leading to infinite loops, does it mean natural languages are meaningless? Are infinitely recursive definitions valid? If we... more


What is cultural relativism?

Philosophy Theology Cosmology


What is the purpose of the universe?

There are two extremes known as **creationism** vs **evolutionism**. Let's consider creationism for a moment, and imagine that God exists, and he/she has created us. The question that obsesses my... more


How can one rebut the argument that atheism is inherently immoral?

It not uncommon to see religious people arguing that without the moral center of a religious text, true ethics are impossible. The reasoning goes that, without a fixed moral center, atheists are... more

Did the Ancient Greek Philosophers actually believe in their Gods and Myths?

Is there any historical proof that shows what attitude the Ancient Greeks, specially the philosophers, had towards their Gods?
Philosophy Art History


What is an artwork from China that expresses a clear connection to Daoism or Confucianism and explain how the philosophy/religion is represented in the artwork?

What is an artwork from China that expresses a clear connection to Daoism or Confucianism and explain how the philosophy/religion is represented in the artwork?
Philosophy Theology


If the universe has a beginning does that prove God exists?

It is curious to note that a eminent Physicist like Stephen Hawking thinks the universe has a beginning. This has some rather startling Religious implications


Is it a fallacy, and if so which, to believe we are special because our existence on Earth seems improbable?

People often use the argument that there must be a God, for example, because Earth and the laws of physics are perfectly situated for humans to exist the way we do. However, if Earth or even the... more


Do any philosophers disagree with Occam's razor?

I never bought into the razor. For example, if I have two hypotheses A and B with equal evidence, the razor would have me pick the simpler one. But personally in my mind, I create a sort of... more
Philosophy Logic


What is the difference between "necessary" and "sufficient"?

What is the logical difference between something being necessary in order for something else to be true; as opposed to something being sufficient to make something else true. i.e. Fuel is... more
Philosophy Epistemology


Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence?

"Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence." I think this statement raises some kind of epistemic problem. Like, how are we supposed to conclude the potential non-existence of something, like... more


Does compatibilism imply that a chess program has free will?

I am puzzled by compatibilism and am trying to understand what it means using a test example. Given that a typical chess program generates several choices, evaluates them with a goal of winning and... more
Philosophy Logic Proof


Does a negative claimant have a burden of proof?

I have often heard it said that the burden of proof is on the positive claimant but not on the one making a negative claim. A person claiming, "God exists" has a burden of proof but not a person... more
Philosophy Logic Modal Logic


What is modal logic for?

I understand "pure" logic as a structural description of what a valid proof is but I have never understood the reasons for using modal logic. What's an example typical of how modal logic is used?
Philosophy Determinism


How should you respond to criminal behavior if you believe in hard determinism?

There are several ideas on hard determinism, but the core seems to be that in an interconnected existence, there can be no "actions" (free will), but only "reactions" (determinism). An action of... more
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