110 Answered Questions for the topic Europe


What periods and locations in early European history had evidence based criminal trials?

What periods and locations in European history had evidence based criminal trials? I'm interested in creating a medieval role playing setting and some fictional narratives involving crime... more

What are some of the influences of the Black Plague and its aftermath on the period of Renaissance?

The period of Renaissance in Europe kicked off after the Black Plague started disappearing. How did the the plague help in igniting the fire of rebirth?


What's the last record of pagan believers in Europe?

When was the last group of pagans wiped out? I'm interested in mainland Europe and the British isles, not fringe areas like Greenland. Edit: I am talking about authentic, contiguous, non Abrahamic... more


When did ancient religions start to experience dropping numbers of adherents in Europe?

I am talking about ancient Greek, Roman and Norwegian religions. When did ancient religions start to lose ground to modern religions such as Catholicism in Europe?

Why are most late medieval fencing manuals German?

Not only is the German school dominating modern European martial arts, but almost everyone who talks about late medieval fencing refers to German fencing manuals as the primary source. Why are... more


Which European countries did not have a revolution in the aftermath of the French Revolution and why?

The French Revolution of 1789 initiated revolutions in a number of European countries, replacing the idea of a monarchy with the idea of a republic built on enlightment ideals. Which European... more

What, if any, celebrations or commemorations were done in 1000 AD?

By the 9th century, the Anno Domini system was the most widespread year numbering in medieval Europe. Humans like patterns. Surely people must have thought it significant when "999 AD" became... more

Before it was "the Balkans"?

I'm working on a project set in the 15th century as the Ottoman Turks made forays into the West. I'm looking for an appropriate term for the region bordered by Anatolia, Romania and Bulgaria to... more

How were political borders marked during the Middle Ages?

I have a very specific question regarding borderlands: between 500-1500, how were the political borders identified? Was it a mere furrow on the ground? Did we have any signs? In other words, were... more

What did contemporary countries in Europe call the Ottoman Empire?

In present texts, it is common to call it "the Ottoman Empire", although the name refers to the ruling dynasty rather than the nation, people or the region. This is not the case with other... more

Has Catholic excommunication ever caused the dethronement of any king?

Wikipedia has a list of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church, with a little explanation of the causes for each case, but (understandably) none of the effects. I'm curious if this measure... more


Light cavalry in medieval western Europe?

What sorts of light cavalry were there in high (1300s) medieval western Europe (England and France)? I mean more like non ranged troops. I know that all soldiers likely owned a horse for transport,... more


How have European microstates survived?

How did European tiny states, like San Marino, Monaco, Andorra and Liechtenstein (excluding the Vatican, whose survival is clearly connected to religious reasons) manage to not be absorbed by... more

Why did France make an alliance with the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in the 1850's?

It is clear why Cavour wanted the alliance, but what benefits would France have from allying itself to a relatively weak (as far as I know) kingdom?

What did men wear at night in the Middle Ages in Europe?

###The question: I'd like to know how did people, especially males, used to dress while sleeping in the Middle Ages in Europe. I suppose the nightwear changes both according to the exact time... more

What was it like for a coastal village to experience a Viking raid in around the tenth century?

Were fishing villages really completely at the mercy of these Vikings, or could they defend them selves? Did villagers have their own weapons? Could they expect any support from a Lord or Land... more

Were there ever any libraries in medieval villages?

I know that in towns and cities there might be libraries built, but is it possible or likely that peasants can have access to it as well? I've heard that every village has an least a monastery or... more


Early medieval urban development?

Does anybody know of research papers or academic resources that study the full development and growth of medieval cities? I mean, from village stage to city stage. Or maybe cities did not develop... more

Why was there little nonwhite migration to Europe in the 19th century?

**Migration** -- This may sound like a strange question, but hear me out. The 19th century was an age of massive population migration, perhaps the most significant in history according to this... more

Where does the name of the country "Belarus" come from?

I've read the German and English Wikipedia on this topic as well as the translated Belarussian version and some sites I googled. They all seem to argue that the 'Rus' part stems from the Region... more


Raising children in Europe in the Middle Ages?

This question might be a little broad, but I would like to know about child rearing practices in Mediaeval Europe. To narrow this down, the time and place that I am *particularly* interested in are... more


How much faster were the printing presses than hand writing?

How many times faster were the printing presses, which gave Europe an advantage over other continents in term of access to knowledge, compared to copying of books by hand?

Was the Dutch State independent when the Dutch East India Company was founded?

How were The Dutch able to build a successful trading empire by 1602 (with The Dutch East India Company) if the Dutch State gained independence after the Thirty Year's War in 1648? The war ends... more

Why did monarchy become common practice after the fall of Rome?

Why did the government of most nations after the fall of Rome and the beginning of medieval age turn to monarchy? Before the fall of Rome most nations seem to be organized after different model... more

How long did it take for a diplomat to travel between Berlin and Vienna in the 1770's?

I was reading the Wikipedia entry for [the War of the Bavarian Succession](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Bavarian_Succession), and it said (my emphasis): > For some historians, the... more

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