This is my understanding of the statements based on context:
1.If a company has branch plants that are managed by local people, then they do not have to learn a great deal about cultural differences.
Less cultural training is needed because these branches are managed by locals, meaning they already have the cultural awareness of their own locale. A business in Japan, managed by Japanese employees likely knows more about Japanese culture than an American managing business in Japan; and would therefore require less cultural training.
2. If all business foreign dealings are handled domestically, then the required level of cultural awareness is very high.
This is somewhat the opposite of the first statement. Since all foreign business is handled domestically, employees will require more cultural training because they are not handling business within the said locale. Meaning that they are not necessarily as familiar with the locale's culture as they would be if they operated within the said locale.
Using the example from the first statement, a business with dealings in Japan that are only handled in America by Americans would require more cultural training because the cultures are different. Americans will need to become more familiar with Japanese culture in order to successfully do business in Japan.
I hope you found this answer helpful!