# Power Generation, Operation and Control

3. Auflage Dezember 2013

656 Seiten, Hardcover*Wiley & Sons Ltd*

**978-0-471-79055-6**

### Kurzbeschreibung

Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, contract and market bidding, and asset valuation under various portfolio combinations.

A thoroughly revised new edition of the definitive work on power systems best practices

In this eagerly awaited new edition, Power Generation, Operation, and Control continues to provide engineers and academics with a complete picture of the techniques used in modern power system operation. Long recognized as the standard reference in the field, the book has been thoroughly updated to reflect the enormous changes that have taken place in the electric power industry since the Second Edition was published seventeen years ago.

With an emphasis on both the engineering and economic aspects of energy management, the Third Edition introduces central "terminal" characteristics for thermal and hydroelectric power generation systems, along with new optimization techniques for tackling real-world operating problems. Readers will find a range of algorithms and methods for performing integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis, as well as modern methods for power system analysis, operation, and control. Special features include:

* State-of-the-art topics such as market simulation, multiple market analysis, contract and market bidding, and other business topics

* Chapters on generation with limited energy supply, power flow control, power system security, and more

* An introduction to regulatory issues, renewable energy, and other evolving topics

* New worked examples and end-of-chapter problems

* A companion website with additional materials, including MATLAB programs and power system sample data sets

Preface to the Second Edition xix

Preface to the First Edition xxi

Acknowledgment xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Purpose of the Course / 1

1.2 Course Scope / 2

1.3 Economic Importance / 2

1.4 Deregulation: Vertical to Horizontal / 3

1.5 Problems: New and Old / 3

1.6 Characteristics of Steam Units / 6

1.7 Renewable Energy / 22

APPENDIX 1A Typical Generation Data / 26

APPENDIX 1B Fossil Fuel Prices / 28

APPENDIX 1C Unit Statistics / 29

References for Generation Systems / 31

Further Reading / 31

2 Industrial Organization, Managerial Economics, and Finance 35

2.1 Introduction / 35

2.2 Business Environments / 36

2.3 Theory of the Firm / 40

2.4 Competitive Market Solutions / 42

2.5 Supplier Solutions / 45

2.6 Cost of Electric Energy Production / 53

2.7 Evolving Markets / 54

2.8 Multiple Company Environments / 58

2.9 Uncertainty and Reliability / 61

PROBLEMS / 61

Reference / 62

3 Economic Dispatch of Thermal Units and Methods of Solution 63

3.1 The Economic Dispatch Problem / 63

3.2 Economic Dispatch with Piecewise Linear Cost Functions / 68

3.3 LP Method / 69

3.4 The Lambda Iteration Method / 73

3.5 Economic Dispatch Via Binary Search / 76

3.6 Economic Dispatch Using Dynamic Programming / 78

3.7 Composite Generation Production Cost Function / 81

3.8 Base Point and Participation Factors / 85

3.9 Thermal System Dispatching with Network Losses Considered / 88

3.10 The Concept of Locational Marginal Price (LMP) / 92

3.11 Auction Mechanisms / 95

APPENDIX 3A Optimization Within Constraints / 106

APPENDIX 3B Linear Programming (LP) / 117

APPENDIX 3C Non-Linear Programming / 128

APPENDIX 3D Dynamic Programming (DP) / 128

APPENDIX 3E Convex Optimization / 135

PROBLEMS / 138

References / 146

4 Unit Commitment 147

4.1 Introduction / 147

4.2 Unit Commitment Solution Methods / 155

4.3 Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) / 167

4.4 Daily Auctions Using a Unit Commitment / 167

APPENDIX 4A Dual Optimization on a Nonconvex Problem / 167

APPENDIX 4B Dynamic-Programming Solution to Unit Commitment / 173

4B.1 Introduction / 173

4B.2 Forward DP Approach / 174

PROBLEMS / 182

5 Generation with Limited Energy Supply 187

5.1 Introduction / 187

5.2 Fuel Scheduling / 188

5.3 Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Contract / 188

5.4 Complex Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Models / 194

5.5 Fuel Scheduling by Linear Programming / 195

5.6 Introduction to Hydrothermal Coordination / 202

5.7 Hydroelectric Plant Models / 204

5.8 Scheduling Problems / 207

5.9 The Hydrothermal Scheduling Problem / 211

5.10 Hydro-Scheduling using Linear Programming / 222

APPENDIX 5A Dynamic-Programming Solution to hydrothermal Scheduling / 225

5.A.1 Dynamic Programming Example / 227

PROBLEMS / 234

6 Transmission System Effects 243

6.1 Introduction / 243

6.2 Conversion of Equipment Data to Bus and Branch Data / 247

6.3 Substation Bus Processing / 248

6.4 Equipment Modeling / 248

6.5 Dispatcher Power Flow for Operational Planning / 251

6.6 Conservation of Energy (Tellegen's Theorem) / 252

6.7 Existing Power Flow Techniques / 253

6.8 The Newton-Raphson Method Using the Augmented Jacobian Matrix / 254

6.9 Mathematical Overview / 257

6.10 AC System Control Modeling / 259

6.11 Local Voltage Control / 259

6.12 Modeling of Transmission Lines and Transformers / 259

6.13 HVDC links / 261

6.14 Brief Review of Jacobian Matrix Processing / 267

6.15 Example 6A: AC Power Flow Case / 269

6.16 The Decoupled Power Flow / 271

6.17 The Gauss-Seidel Method / 275

6.18 The "DC" or Linear Power Flow / 277

6.19 Unified Eliminated Variable Hvdc Method / 278

6.20 Transmission Losses / 284

6.21 Discussion of Reference Bus Penalty Factors / 288

6.22 Bus Penalty Factors Direct from the AC Power Flow / 289

PROBLEMS / 291

7 Power System Security 296

7.1 Introduction / 296

7.2 Factors Affecting Power System Security / 301

7.3 Contingency Analysis: Detection of Network Problems / 301

7.4 An Overview of Security Analysis / 306

7.5 Monitoring Power Transactions Using "Flowgates" / 313

7.6 Voltage Collapse / 315

APPENDIX 7A AC Power Flow Sample Cases / 327

APPENDIX 7B Calculation of Network Sensitivity Factors / 336

7B.1 Calculation of PTDF Factors / 336

7B.2 Calculation of LODF Factors / 339

7B.3 Compensated PTDF Factors / 343

Problems / 343

References / 349

8 Optimal Power Flow 350

8.1 Introduction / 350

8.2 The Economic Dispatch Formulation / 351

8.3 The Optimal Power Flow Calculation Combining Economic Dispatch and the Power Flow / 352

8.4 Optimal Power Flow Using the DC Power Flow / 354

8.5 Example 8A: Solution of the DC Power Flow OPF / 356

8.6 Example 8B: DCOPF with Transmission Line Limit Imposed / 361

8.7 Formal Solution of the DCOPF / 365

8.8 Adding Line Flow Constraints to the Linear Programming Solution / 365

8.9 Solution of the ACOPF / 368

8.10 Algorithms for Solution of the ACOPF / 369

8.11 Relationship Between LMP, Incremental Losses, and Line Flow Constraints / 376

8.12 Security-Constrained OPF / 382

APPENDIX 8A Interior Point Method / 391

APPENDIX 8B Data for the 12-Bus System / 393

APPENDIX 8C Line Flow Sensitivity Factors / 395

APPENDIX 8D Linear Sensitivity Analysis of the AC Power Flow / 397

PROBLEMS / 399

9 Introduction to State Estimation in Power Systems 403

9.1 Introduction / 403

9.2 Power System State Estimation / 404

9.3 Maximum Likelihood Weighted Least-Squares Estimation / 408

9.4 State Estimation of an Ac Network / 421

9.5 State Estimation by Orthogonal Decomposition / 428

9.6 An Introduction to Advanced Topics in State Estimation / 435

9.7 The Use of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUS) / 447

9.8 Application of Power Systems State Estimation / 451

9.9 Importance of Data Verification and Validation / 454

9.10 Power System Control Centers / 454

APPENDIX 9A Derivation of Least-Squares Equations / 456

9A.1 The Overdetermined Case (Nm > Ns) / 457

9A.2 The Fully Determined Case (Nm = Ns) / 462

9A.3 The Underdetermined Case (Nm

PROBLEMS / 464

10 Control of Generation 468

10.1 Introduction / 468

10.2 Generator Model / 470

10.3 Load Model / 473

10.4 Prime-Mover Model / 475

10.5 Governor Model / 476

10.6 Tie-Line Model / 481

10.7 Generation Control / 485

PROBLEMS / 497

References / 500

11 Interchange, Pooling, Brokers, and Auctions 501

11.1 Introduction / 501

11.2 Interchange Contracts / 504

11.3 Energy Interchange between Utilities / 517

11.4 Interutility Economy Energy Evaluation / 521

11.5 Interchange Evaluation with Unit Commitment / 522

11.6 Multiple Utility Interchange Transactions--Wheeling / 523

11.7 Power Pools / 526

11.8 The Energy-Broker System / 529

11.9 Transmission Capability General Issues / 533

11.10 Available Transfer Capability and Flowgates / 535

11.11 Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) / 550

11.12 Auction Emulation using Network LP / 555

11.13 Sealed Bid Discrete Auctions / 555

PROBLEMS / 560

12 Short-Term Demand Forecasting 566

12.1 Perspective / 566

12.2 Analytic Methods / 569

12.3 Demand Models / 571

12.4 Commodity Price Forecasting / 572

12.5 Forecasting Errors / 573

12.6 System Identification / 573

12.7 Econometric Models / 574

12.8 Time Series / 578

12.9 Time Series Model Development / 585

12.10 Artificial Neural Networks / 603

12.11 Model Integration / 614

12.12 Demand Prediction / 614

12.13 Conclusion / 616

PROBLEMS / 617

Index 620

BRUCE F. WOLLENBERG joined the University of Minnesota in 1989 and made original contributions to the understanding of electric power market structures. He is a Life Fellow of the IEEE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

GERALD B. SHEBLÉ joined Auburn University in 1990 to conduct research in power system, space power, and electric auction market research. He joined Iowa State University to conduct research in the interaction of markets and power system operation. His academic research has continued to center on the action of the markets based on the physical operation of the power system. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.