Ancient Mesopotamia is thought to be the birthplace of civilization. Before the Mesopotamia civilization, folks were primarily hunters and gathered and loved a more nomadic existence. Mesopotamia was able to develop into a civilization largely due to its geography and climate. It had super fertile soil from runoff from nearby mountains. It was not too hot or too cold in terms of climate which enabled growth of many crops along with the fertile soil. the Tigris and Euphrates rivers provided essential sources for irrigation. The rivers were also major thoroughfares for transportation, making Mesopotamia an ideal stop along Asian trade routes. Also, because the landscape was relatively flat and open, Mesopotamians had to develop key components of civilization to be able to defend itself from invaders and attack.
This answer is to help provide the basic background so you understand the concepts.If if this were an essay, I’d recommend you spend time describing each of those themes in more detail and explaining how they interrelate while linking back to geography and climate of the area. I teach my private students how to do that and how to structure and write strong essays.
I hope this was helpful!