19 Answered Questions for the topic Immunology

Immunology Biology Microbiology


Determine number of Bacteria

Determine the number of bacteria within a 1 kilogram package of ground beef in order to provide a quantitative risk assessment and quality measure before release to public market.Technical Data: A... more
Immunology Biology Chemistry


All antibody based methods to quantify protein levels are so specific you don’t need controls?

True or false?I think its true since we need controls to determine certain methods?
Immunology Biology


An EMSA can be used to determine if a transcription factor is bound to DNA?

true or false?I think its true since EMSA is similar to Elisa where its also an enzyme and is bound to DNA.
Immunology Biology Microbiology


Which of the following is a part of the innate immune system? A.) Natural killer Cells B.) Cytokines C.) Mucus D.) Macrophages E.) All of the above

The Innate Immune system is characteristic of "immune first responders" that have no memory and is important for our body's first line of defense and helping to signal the Adaptive Immunity to... more


What is the results on Figure 2. on panels A, B, and C

Figure 2. is on page 26https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/02/06/541979.full.pdf


Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation,... more
Immunology Microbiology


Can immunity to diseases vary by populations?

A common explanation for the massive population decreases of isolated societies upon contact with Europeans during the Age of Discovery is that the natives lacked immunity to newly introduced... more
Immunology Microbiology Hiv


Can the RNA in the HIV virus make viral enzymes without entering the nucleus?

If the provirus was not formed yet, can the virus make viral enzymes? (I know that it already has some, but supposing it doesn't)


Why do people have antibodies against other blood types?

The ABO blood type divides each blood type according to whether they have the "A" and "B" antigen(s) (AB has both, O has none). People also have antibodies against the antigens they don't have (AB... more


How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to... more
Immunology Genetics Hiv Pathology


Why is an HIV infection considered "incurable"?

My biology teacher told me that if one caught HIV, they cannot be cured because it was near to impossible to be completely virus-free. She said this was because HIV keeps on changing its... more


How does paracetamol interfere with immune system?

Paracetamol is used to reduce body temperature when it is to high. The high body temperature (fever) is known to be an indication that immune system fights against an infection.In this context I... more


From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain?

Recently, some research, for example this article(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2919277/) has proposed that inflammation can cause innate immune cells to produce pro-inflammatory... more


How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time in... more


Why is it advised that infants are fed mother's milk?

I have heard that mother's milk is preferred over other baby foods, because it contains immunoglobulins (secretory IgA), and other essential nutrients. But why is mother's milk so special? Any... more


Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?


Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain... more
Immunology Biology Cell


What's the difference between naive and memory B cells?

I understand that when naive B cells are exposed to antigens, they become memory B cells, but what is the functional difference between the two? I've looked at the quite a few article on B cells,... more


What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins,... more

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