Phonology is the study of how the body, specifically vocal chords, tongue and teeth move to create sounds. An example would be what you do to make the 'T' sound in Time.
Morphology is the study of words or sound clusters together.. Usually the smallest words or sounds that can possibly created, rather than longer words. Time would be one such sound.
Syntax is the study of the order of how a language orders words. An example would be to know in English that we say, "I picked up a gallon of milk at the store." vs. randomly assorted "A gallon I at store picked up milk."
Semantics is the study of meanings in words. An example being "I will meet my friends" and "I will hang out with my friends." might have the same meaning in a conversation.
Pragmatics is the study of how meanings are actually used. "Crack open a window" is a common example, where you don't actually break a window to open it, but open it a small amount.