This topic is one that there is a lot of information on and a lot could be said about it.
As a Christian, I believe that Jesus is God. He is the second part of the Trinity--God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. Jesus is presented as a Servant as He is many times in the book of Mark. But He is also presented as the King of the Jews in Matthew, the Perfect man in Luke, and God in John. So which of these is He? The answer is that He is all of the above.
Some of the most powerful Scripture presenting Jesus as God is found in John. John 1 says that Jesus is "the Word."
John 1:1-3; 14 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made...And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth."
Later in John 5, the Jews sought to kill him because He had made himself equal with God.
Also, there are many times in John where Jesus refers to himself as I AM. This is a direct reference to Exodus where God said to Moses--I AM THAT I AM. An example of Jesus saying this is in John 8:58 "...Before Abraham was, I am."
John 10:30 says "I and my Father are one." If Jesus was just God's servant, he would not be equal with God.
Philippians 2:5-11 says "Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name above every name: That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." Several times in the Bible, you find someone bowing down to worship a servant of God or an angel, and they are told not to. They are told that worship is for God alone. (Revelation 19:10) If Jesus were just a servant of God, it would not be okay to worship Him. But He was not just a prophet, a good man, or a servant--He is God Almighty and fully deserving of our worship and praise.
Moreover, Colossians 1:16-18; 2:9 "For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: And he is before all things, and by him all things consist. And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead: that in all things he might have the preeminence...For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily."
The Bible has many instances where it shows that Jesus is God. But why is it so important doctrinally? Jesus being God is important to the doctrine of salvation.
Romans 6:23 says "for the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." Because of sin, there is eternal death in Hell, but God in His mercy and grace provided a way for us to be forgiven of our sins and spend forever in Heaven with Him. But this is only possible through Jesus Christ. Why is Jesus so special? If a servant of God is what was needed, then we could be saved through Moses or Samuel. If a righteous man is what was needed, then we could be saved through Job or Noah. If a prophet is what was needed, then we could be saved through Isaiah or Jeremiah. But it was not a servant, righteous man, or a prophet that was needed. Our salvation had to be through Jesus because He is God. He was a servant, prophet, and perfect--but most importantly He was the Son of God who would take away the sins of the world. That is the gospel, the Good News that when we were sinners, God sent His only Son to be born of a virgin, live a sinless life, die on the cross, be buried in a borrowed tomb, and raise from the dead three days later. And the amazing part is that all we have to do to accept the "gift of God" that Romans talks about is admit that we are a sinner, believe in Jesus and what He did to take away our sins, and call out and ask Him to save us. (Romans 10:9-10; 13)
The passages you quoted from the Apocrypha are considered to be Scripture by Catholicism; however, the Apocrypha contradicts the Bible in several places and therefore is considered non-canonical by most Christians.
Also, it is interesting to note the meticulous methods through which the Bible has been preserved. It is a very interesting study. The scribes who wrote the Bible could not make more than two mistakes on an entire scroll or else the entire thing had to be thrown out and they had to start again. They could not write the name of God after just having dipped the pen in ink (so as to prevent splotches), and when a scroll was getting old, it would be rewritten. These and many other precautions were taken to make sure that every jot and tittle of God's Word would be preserved throughout the ages. It is because of these practices that the oldest text is not necessarily the most reliable as is sometimes perceived. Instead, the majority of Biblical texts--or the Texus Receptus--is considered the most reliable as it has more than 5000 portions of text that it has been taken from.