All religions are influenced by the culture in which they practice. Islam is more heavily intertwined with culture than the other Abrahamic religions, and arguably more than other world religions as well. Unfortunately, this question doesn't ask about a specific cultural setting, so it's difficult for me to answer specifically.
Islam, as you know, has it's roots in the middle east and Persian cultures. The representation of Islam outside of this context varies significantly. Middle Eastern Islam is divided between the Sunni and Shiite factions. These two groups were split after the death of the prophet Muhammed because they held different ideas regarding how to appoint his successor. The Sunni appointed a third party caliph, while the Shiites held that power must flow through the prophet's family. This conflict remains in the forefront of contemporary Middle Eastern Islam. The Shiites maintain that Ali is the rightful successor of the Prophet. This remains an important distinction between the two groups. There are, of course, a plethora of cultural and political implications upon contemporary Middle Eastern Islam.
Outside of the Middle East, however, Islam morphs with the cultural context. A major distinction to consider is that Islam is THE religion of most Middle Eastern countries. All citizens must ascribe to particular Islamic practices by state ascription. In some Middle Eastern nations today, there remain severe penalties for renouncing Islam or converting to another religion. Some of these nations, such as Saudi Arabi and Iraq, function as an Islamic state. A few Middle Eastern nations are nominally secular in their government organization, but may still be heavily influenced by the standards of the Islamic religion.
Outside of the Middle East, however, many Muslims live in secular countries and experience religious freedom which removes the potential dangers of conversion. Islam survives abroad largely as a family religion, it's standards kept by patriarchs and enforced by a strong sense of family duty and prescription to mores, sometimes with very little religious devotion.
Again, it's difficult to summarize in full the influence of social and political culture upon the institution and practice of Islam without parameters as to which culture and context we are discussing. I hope this insight has been helpful. I'm glad to be available if you have more specific questions on this subject.