How can dissolved materials be moved from the outside to the inside of a cell when the inside concentration of the material is higher than the outside concentration?
a. Molecules can be moved into a cell against their concentration gradient if that transport is coupled with osmotic transport of water into the cell.
b. Substances can be moved against a concentration gradient by pumps that do work using the energy provided by ATP hydrolysis.
c. Some channels are capable of moving molecules against their concentration gradients via passive transport.
d. A molecule can be transported into a cell, against its concentration gradient, as long as it is transported along its electrochemical gradient.
e. b and d