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Biology: Replication, Transcription, and Translation

Fill in the chart below using the mRNA Codon chart to translate the genetic code.
|DNA Template| mRNA Codon| tRNA Anticodon| Amino Acid|
  (??)                         (??)                     GCG                (??)
   CAT                        (??)                      (??)                (??)
   (??)                        ACC                      (??)                (??)
   (??)                        (??)                       (??)                Tryptophan
   AGC                        (??)                       (??)                (??)
2) How can the genes that a cell possesses determine how the cell acts and how it is made?
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1 Answer

Firstly you need to remember the differences between DNA and RNA, what kinds of nucleotides they have. DNA have adenine or A, thymine or T, cytosine or C, and guanine or G and they always pair up as A-T and C-G. However, RNA is a bit different it has Uracil or U instead of Thymine so the pairing rules are then T-A-U and C-G. Notice the T is still at the beginning of the group this is because IF there is a T in the DNA it pairs with A. Just a tiny hiccup that often gets to some students.
The notice in the chart that we are also pairing up codons (a group of three bases in the mRNA) and anticodons, these are basically opposites using the RNA pairing rules and found in tRNA. Then there is the amino acid column. this is where we match the specific anticodon with it corresponding amino acid this can be found on a chart in your book or online easily just look up amino acid charts or translation or protein synthesis.
So lets go through the first line. we don't know the DNA, mRNA or AA, but we do know the tRNA of GCG. Going in reverse using the RNA base pairing rules the G pairs with C, the C pairs with G, and then the again the G with C making the mRNA codon CGC. Next the DNA, is the same just opposite again because in DNA rules the C's and G's pairing is the same. This makes the DNA GCG, same as the anticodon. (Its not always the same, but sometimes it is.) The anticodon then codes for the amino acid alanine or ala. Again this was found on a chart.You then continue all the way down the chart, just remembering the rules and where you are starting from.
2) Genes provide the information for a cell to perform all the actions it does by regulating which areas of the DNA is being used cells are then controlled in their functions. Transcription factors that come from outside the cell tell the cell what to become as you are growing and maturing.