444 Answered Questions for the topic biochemistry


Biological Pathway of Lipid Hypothesis?

I've read a lot on both sides of the debate of low carb vs low fat diets trying to make some sense of what is being proposed. The lipid hypothesis runs roughly along the lines that we have lots of... more


Bacterial cell lysis - what solution to use?

I am trying to determine how quickly detergents act on bacterial cells (cell lysis). I would like to compare some detergents at difference concentrations for bacteriolytic activity. I don’t care... more


Can Oxaloacetate cross the outer mitochondrial membrane?

I am aware of the Malate–Aspartate Shuttle, but something is not clear to me and different sources seem to contradict each other. Some show oxaloacetate (OAA) being reduced to malate in the... more


Are there dangers to Teflon and aluminium cookware?

I've been reading some articles on the internet about dangers of Teflon and aluminium to the body. My family say I'm just exaggerating the situation, and maybe I am, though I'm not sure because not... more


What cells or chemicals are involved in acute inflammation and immune response during infections?

When studying the physiology of the immune system and inflammation The cells involved are derived from the plasma portion of blood and the most common are neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, T... more


How does the polymerase protein know which gene to express?

I am not asking where the DNA or RNA polymerase starts to transcribe a gene. I want to know how does the polymerase know WHICH of thousands of genes on multiple chromsomes to pick at any one... more


What causes humans to be sleepy?

Is there a hormone or group of hormones that regulates when we feel sleepy late at night, or in the morning? Or is sleepiness caused by some other non-hormonal mechanism? (e.g. pure... more


How do lipid-soluble substances diffuse through the cell membrane?

It’s said that water-soluble substances can diffuse through cell membrane with less ease than lipid-soluble substances because the former encounters impedance in the hydrophobic region of the... more


Why do neurones use chemical signalling at synaptic junctions?

When a neurone fires, it sends an electrical signal that jumps down the axon via the nodes of Ranvier very rapidly. At a synaptic junction, chemical Brownian diffusion signalling with receptor... more


Do lysosomes play any role in cell division?

My biology textbook includes a point that lysosomes stimulates cell division without further elaborating. But studying it, I felt eerie about this function of lysosome. Then, I checked on the... more


Do two compatible tRNA codons bond together?

Can two tRNA with complementary anti-codons link together? For instance UUU with AAA. If not, why not?


Do chaperone proteins misfold?

If molecular chaperone proteins assist in the folding process of other proteins and misfolded proteins, can chaperone themselves misfold since they are also proteins? What would happen if... more


Energy released during the production of ATP?

When glucose is used during aerobic and anaerobic exercise, how much energy is expended or required?During aerobic exercise:$C_6H_{12}O_6 + 6 O_2 \ o ATP + H_2O + 6 CO_2$ + energyDuring anaerobic... more


Why are proteins in the insoluble form when they are in frozen water?

Why would lowering the temperature of water change the intermolecular forces so much that proteins once soluble in water, become insoluble? I know freezing can create a crystal lattice, but I don't... more


Why should phospholipid non-polar tails be "protected" in the membrane bilayer?

>lipids are arranged within the membrane with polar head towards the outer side and non polar tails towards inner side, this ensures that the non polar tail is protected from aqueous... more


Do disaccharidases require a cofactor or coenzyme to function?

I'm doing research on lactose intolerance and am curious if disaccharidases (enzymes that break down disaccharides) require a cofactor or coenzyme to function? Reviews or references would be... more


Is there a difference between polarity and hydrophobicity?

From literature the two terms seem to be interchangeable when discussing protein domains and motifs. But biochemically, what are the specific differences between these two terms? For example what... more


Why doesn't life produce diamond, graphene, nanotubes, etc? Could it?

It seems that life is really good at assembling carbon into extremely complicated molecules (e.g. DNA). Graphene is stronger than any materials currently used by biology. Diamond is harder than any... more


Does alpha-amylase from different species have different *optimal* conditions?

Do the optimal conditions for the enzyme isoforms differ between species? Specifically, do the optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase differ for that enzyme produced by *B. lichiniformis* and... more


Does NADH inhibit gluconeogenesis?

I was told in a physiology lecture that alcohol inhibits gluconeogenesis because 'NADH produced from ethanol catabolism leads to product inhibition'.But is NADH not a reactant coenzyme of... more


What are 'acid stable' amino acids?

I tend to see terms `amino acid`, `acid stable amino acid`, and `free amino acids` used often in the field of nutrition, but they are sometimes used interchangeably which confuses me. I know that:-... more


Can bacteria metabolize fatty acids for fuel?

I'm not a microbiologist, but rather a physiologist curious about microbial metabolism. Much like humans bacteria can utilize glucose, but when it comes to long chain, medium chain, or short chain... more


Calculating Percent Yield Question

Aluminum oxide is produced in a single replacement reaction between aluminum and chromium (II) oxide. Calculate the percent yield if 603.0g of chromium(II) oxide were used with 422.5g of aluminum... more


What is an irreversible reaction?

There are reactions with large Delta G negative values. Why these reactions are irreversible? As in: out of 10 steps of Glycolysis, 3 are irreversible steps. I need an explanation for why they are... more
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