In my experience, primarily research and/or academia.
However, for a far more comprehensive (and accurate) response, I consulted the APA regarding careers within the divisions of applied experimental and engineering psychology, under the purview of which a degree in cognitive science would fall:
And here is a brief yet handy APA PowerPoint regarding the area of study/career in general:
For a first-hand account pertaining to the prospects of a degree in Cognitive Science, here is a doctoral student's blog post about her experience, and the types of work she and her colleagues engage in:
Finally, I'm providing a link by the US Department of Labor, which details the level of education, salary, expected field growth, and daily activities associated within the aforementioned field (the job title isn't an exact match, but it's the closest one available):
Also, I am actually a certified vocational counselor as well as a graduate student majoring in Cognition and Neuroscience. As such, please feel free to contact me if you have any further questions; I’d be happy to assist you!