Well, what is pH? Roughly it's the negative log of the molarity of H+. The pH of blood is about 7.4, so you can solve
7.4 = -log [H+]
and find the concentration of H+ in moles/L.
Then you just multiply by the volume to find the moles of H+.
For the deficit part, do you mean in relation to pH 7 or to the OH- ions? If the former, you follow the same steps as above, but solve for [H+] for pH 7. Then you subtract the pH 7.4 moles from the pH 7 moles to find the deficit.
If the latter, you use the equation for pOH:
pOH = 14 - pH = -log [OH-]
Solve for the molarity of OH-, multiply by the volume, and subtract the pH 7.4 moles from the pOH (14 - 7.4) moles.