Yes, when he heard that no American carriers had been in port, so all were safe, and that the fuel storage hadn't been destroyed, Yamamoto knew that not enough damage had been done to compensate for the rage that was created among Americans.
The Japanese hoped to knock the US back far enough that we wouldn't be able to resist the Japanese advance in the Pacific. They hoped to be able to advance and establish a strong defensive perimeter before the US could effectively mount a counter-offensive. But Yamamoto was correct; with her carriers intact, the USA was able to stage a land counter-offensive that stopped and eventually reversed the Japanese advance, on Guadalcanal, by August 1942. And the Battle of Midway, where the US fleet was able to destroy a substantial naval force and reverse the tide in the Pacific, happened only six months after Pearl Harbor.