Looking at the first row:
We know that protons and electrons are equal to one another, in a normal atom. This can be found by looking at the elements atomic number, oxygen has an atomic number of 8, meaning that it has 8 protons. Here we see 10 electrons, which means that we have 2 extra electrons as we should have 8. This will effect our charge.
Using this, oxygen usually has a charge of -2 (can be found by looking at its location on the periodic table, the row in which it lies has a -2 charge). With two extra electrons, it has a charge of -4.
The mass number consists of your protons plus your neutrons. Our mass number here is 16. 16-8 protons means we have 8 neutrons. The number of protons in an element will not change, however the number of neutrons and electrons can, as seen in this example.
I hope this information helps with the remaining parts of the table