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forty-five percent of what number is 50

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The best way to approach these problems is to set up a simple equation.
 
Note that the word "of" means multiply in math, and "is" means equals.  Also. "what number" is an unknown quantity...a variable.
 
So, 0.45 times "x" = 50  or   0.45x=50     divide both sides by 0.45, so x=50/0.45=111.11
 
Remember that a percent needs to be changed into a decimal-->divide the percent by 100, so 45% = 0.45