Fascism rose in the early twentieth century. My largest base of knowledge is in regards to Italy and Germany. In both nations a charismatic leader (Mussolini and Hitler) used nationalism to rise to power. Both of these nations were in economic recession and Germany was reeling from its loss in WWI. If you would like more details consider reading Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism. If you would like other more contemporary academic studies, please message me.