Here are some examples here. I will not list them all because, well, there are many.
Cliffhangers: build up suspense in part 1 but don't resolve the conflict until a future part 2, thus making the reader wanting to continue on to the next page.
Metaphor: Analogies without using like or as. (e.g. This assignment is a piece of cake!)
Similie: Analogies using like or as. (e.g. Their hearts were brave like lions.)
Allegory: Using symbolic language to convey the meaning of a more abstract concept. An entire story may be allegory, or perhaps a specific character or object may be referencing the abstract.
Alliteration: A sequence of which have the same sounds/letters at the begging. (e.g. "Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers")
Assonance: The repetition of sounds produced by vowels within a sentence or phrase. (e.g. "How now brown cow")
Denotation: Using strict dictionary definitions
Connotation: Using the meanings implied around the word.
Parallelism: refers to placing together similarly structured related phrases, words or clauses. This is usually done through grammar. (e.g. He ran, she sang, they swam.)
Others you should look up include tone, diction, theme, mood, irony, and puns.