This is a great question. In this case, you can omit the subject and replace the subject with the pronoun it. However, be aware of the frequency you are omitting the subject because if you remove it too much, it can lead to a lot of confusion. In this case your sentences can become:
The sculpture A exhibits degradation at a seemingly increased rate from 30 years ago. However, the surrounding environment is considered not to have changed at a significant level since it was carved.
A good rule of thumb to go by with your writing is: clearly announce or identify your subject in the first sentence before replacing the subject with a pronoun (such as it) in the following sentence. In the third sentence, re-identify the subject in a new way but not by replacing the word(s) with common pronouns or object pronouns.
For example, your third sentence could be something along the lines of: The combination of degradation and the surrounding environment places the sculpture in a unique setting of appreciation for the viewer.
By re-identifying your subject you're allowing the reader to easily follow what you are saying while also making sure you aren't becoming too repetitive.
I hope this was helpful! Good luck!