If you read Tedd Benson's books about Timber Framing, he recommends that the envelope of a structure be located outside of the structural members. So enclosing walls of Superadobe or Hyperadobe would work in theory, as long as they did not add load to the timber frame. I would think using something other than earthbags for the roof would be recommended.
I guess the question is, what is the benefit of building with both methods in one structure? Would it not be preferable to build one earthbag structure (a garage, a workshop) and then build your timber frame house on the same site?
If it's the weather resistance you want, modern composite siding and metal roofing are extremely wind and fire resistant, have low operating costs, and would provide many finish options.
If you are building a Viking Longhouse, though, perhaps Hyperadobe and Timber Frame combined is ideal.