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all chemical reactions involve_______to make and break bonds between atoms

is the answer one of the following: b.haet c.hydrogrn d.water e.acid

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Chemical Energy: is stored in the bonds of the chemical they are holding together. Covalent bonds contain the most energy,while hydrogen bond much less. During a chemical reaction 2 thing must occur,

1). Energy must be absorbed to break the bonds of the reactants.
2). Energy is released when new bond are formed.

This is called bond energy.

Valence electrons occupy the last energy level of an atom. It is here where atoms come in contact with each other. It stands to reason that chemical bonds will occur here in any chemical reaction. The maximum number of valence electrons any atom can contain is 8. Any number less than 8 will allow that atom to act as a donor or recipient of electrons to become stable. Atoms that give electrons will become + ions and have a + charge, while atoms that receive electrons will become a negative ion with a - charge.

Chemical Bonding: Atoms will interact with each other depending on their incomplete valence shell.

There are several types of chemical bonds:

Covalent Bond: These bonds are the strongest of the bonds. They are formed by the sharing of the valence electrons. There are several subsets of covalent bonding:

a). Nonpolar: Here the valence electrons are shared equally, thus eliminating a positive and negative end on the molecule.

1). double nonpolar: O2

2). triple nonpolar: N2

b). Polar covalent bond: Here the valence electrons are shared unequally, causing the molecule to develop a positive end ( where the electrons spend less time) and a negative end( where the electrons spend more time). This has to do with the electronegativity of the atom. The more electronegative the atom the more it will hold on to the electrons. Oxygen is very electronegative. Hydrogen is not.

Ionic Bond: These bonds are formed by the taking of electrons. Anion: negative ion, Cl- and (OH) Cation: positive ion, Na+ and (NH4)+.

Other Bonds
Hydrogen Bond: This bond is formed when Hydrogen that is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom on another molecule.

van der Walls interactions: These are nonpolar bonds caused by accumulations of + or - charges at the ends of molecules. These are transient forces, and change rapidly.