A neutralization reaction is a type of double replacement reaction that occurs between an acid and a base to produce a salt and water as the products. This is because the acid contributes H+ and the base contributes OH-, which together will form H-O-H or H2O. The PO43- and the Na1+ from the acid and base will now bond with each other to form Na3PO4.
H3PO4 + NaOH → Na3PO4 + H2O
Looking at this equation, there is 1 Na on the left, but 3 on the right. To fix this, we can add a coefficient of 3 in front of the NaOH.
H3PO4 + 3 NaOH → Na3PO4 + H2O
Now that the Na is balanced on both sides of the equation, let's look at the H's. There are 6 on the left, and only 2 on the right. We can fix this by placing a coefficient of 3 in front of the H2O.
H3PO4 + 3 NaOH → Na3PO4 + 3 H2O
If you have any further questions about neutralization reactions or how to balance equations, please ask in the comments, thanks!