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Earth Science c/o plant cycles and lichen

1.  a lichen is an example of
 a.  symbiosis
b.  mutualism
c.  parasitism
2.  lichens are found in areas
a.  undergoing primary succession
b.  undergoing secondary succession
c.  climax communities
3.  in an area undergong primary succession perennials are
a.  the first plants to appear
b.  present before primary sucession begins
c.  not part of this stage succession
4.  weeds growing in the cracks of a sidewalk would be an example of
a.  primary succession
b.  secondary succession
c.  climax communities
5.  climax communities tend to be
a.  stable
b.  unstable
c.  stable only in certain biomes
6.  compaired to climax communities areas undergoing primary succession tend to
a.  have the same amount of diversity
b.  be more ecologically diverse
c.  be less diverse
7.  secondary succession proceeds
a.  more quickly than primary succession
b.  more slowly than primary sucession
c.  at the same rate as primary succession
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1 Answer

Lichen is an example of symbiosis , a partnership with fungus and photosynthetic phycobiont or photobiont. They are found in the area undergoing primary succession and are the first living organisms to appear.
Perennials are not the part of primary succession.
Weeds growing in cracks can be the example of secondary succession.
Climax communities are stable, comparatively areas undergoing primary succession are much less diverse.
Secondary succession might have the same rate as primary succession or could be faster depending on the climate and other factors.
I hope this helps.


than.k you but I am still confused about that a Lichen is an example of symbiosis.  I thought it was mutualism
To my knowledge, fungus derives nutrient through lichens, lichen simply exist/co-exist with fungus.
Symbiosis is long-term close co-existence of  two organisms.
Mutualism is same as symbiosis; the difference is that both organisms benefit from their co-existence.
In symbiosis, two organisms co-exist and  in most cases require each other but both organisms  do not have to benefit from each other.  
Hope this clarifies your confusion.