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Method that eliminates data that stands out the most?

Is there an official name for getting a statistic used by calculation the statistic on a sample and eliminating the data that stands out the most?
Lets say I'm trying to get the mean on 1,4,6,4,100. I would eliminate 100 from my data set.
I would know how to do that, but I would like to research various methods that do these kind of process. 
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 What you are asking for is called outlier. It depends on the circumstance and how large of a sample there is, how often they appear, and whether the samples are randomized, or  rightfully belong to the outside of the confidence interval.