Napoleon's quotes can be compared to later dictators to make a great essay. Below is an outline of why he is such a major part of history.
Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna
“I love power as a musician loves his violin.”
“If the victory is for a moment uncertain, you shall see the Emperor himself placed on the front line.”
“My army is formidable. Once we had an army of the Rhine, an Army of Italy, an army of Holland; there has never been a French army – but now it exists, and we shall soon see it in action.”
“Soldiers, I am pleased with you. On the day of Austerlitz, you justified everything that I was expecting of your intrepidity. … In less than four hours, an army of 100,000 men, commanded by the emperors of Russian and Austria, was cut up and dispersed. … 120 pieces of artillery, 20 generals, and more than 30,000 men taken prisoner – such are the results of this day which will forever be famous. … My nation will be overjoyed to see you again. And it will be enough for you to say, “I was at Austerlitz,” to hear the reply: “There is a brave man!”
Napoleon Bonaparte, a military genius, seized power in France & made himself emperor.
Cannonade: (A bombardment with heavy artillery fire.)
1795: Royalist rebels marched on the National Convention. Rebels were greeted by a cannonade & fled in panic & confusion. N.B. was a hero.
Coup d’etat ( A sudden seizure of political power in a nation.)
1799: N. B. in charge of the military. Legislature dissolved the directory. N.B. was a dictator; 1st consul of French republic.
Plebiscite ( A direct vote in which a country’s people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal.)
1800: A new constitution approved which gave all real power to N.B.
Lycee (A government-run public school in France.)
Restoring order at home was accomplished by improvement of government services. Schools were set up including children of ordinary citizens & wealthy.
Condordat (A formal agreement – especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of church affairs.)
Recognized Catholicism as ‘faith of Frenchmen’
A new relationship between church & state rejected church control in national affairs
Battle of Trafalgar: 1805 – war against the 3rd Coalition
Tried to remove the threat of the British navy.
Naval defeat was as important as all of N.B.’s land victories
Off southern coast of Spain
Admiral Horatio Nelson (British) outmaneuvered the French – Spanish fleet
Nelson mortally wounded by a French sharpshooter. “Now I am satisfied. Thank God, I have done my duty.”
Supremacy of the British navy assured for the next 100 years
N. B. forced to give up plans of invading Britain
Napoleonic Code: a comprehensive & uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon.
Eliminated many injustices
Promoted order & authority over individual rights
Took away some rights that women won in the Revolution
Lost right to sell their property
Freedom of speech & press restricted
Restored slavery in the French colonies of the Caribbean
Continental System: A costly mistake in 1806.
N. ordered a blockade – a forcible closing of ports – to prevent trade & communication with Britain. It was supposed to make continental Europe more self-sufficient & destroy British economy.
Not tight enough to destroy British trade
Britain had a stronger navy & responded with a blockade that worked.
American ships were stopped by the Brits. Angered, the U.S declared the War of 1812.
Hurt N. & weakened the economies of France & lands under N’s control.
The impact of the Congress of Vienna was …
Klemens von Metternich: Austria’s foreign minister, 39 years
“The first & greatest concern for the immense majority of every nation is the stability of laws – never their change.”
The containment of France. Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries.
Restore a Balance of Power so that no country would be a threat to others.
France remained intact. Congress was easy on France.
France gave up all territories N.B. had taken
Legitimacy: as many as possible of the rulers N.B. had driven from their thrones should be restored to power.