Details can be enhanced in several ways within LR. To tackle your question as a two-pronged approach:
Levels --- You are correct that Levels does not exist in Lightroom. The functionality of Levels does exist though. The levels tool is essentially letting you set your White and Black Points (as well as your midpoint). In Lightroom you can attack that using any combo of these sliders: Contrast, Whites, Blacks, Shadows, Highlights. All of these sliders affect contrast, which is what is happening when using Levels.
Alternatively, you can simulate Levels using the Histogram in LR. Both left and right side of the histogram are draggable (just like in Levels). Grabbing the sides of the Histogram itself will slide the appropriate Whites and Blacks Slider for you. Grabbing the middle is unlike Levels (Levels - middle increases/decreases contrast in part of the tonal range, LR - middle changes exposure).
Enhancing Details --- To answer the second part of your question, how do you enhance details...you are right that the changes in Levels could enhance these elements. In Lightroom I would actually suggest trying either of these options: clarity or dehaze. In either case, using a local brush adjustment would offer the best control and most convincing results.