The inductive effect is the result of dipole formation between two atoms of differing charge. Consider the molecule chloromethane (Cl-CH3). The chlorine will take a partial negative charge the carbon a partial positive charge creating a dipole moment in the direction of the chlorine or-1 effect. The opposite is the +1 effect where the carbocation has become partial negative. This is where the term gets it name. The CH3- has a lone pair of electrons it would like donate. The reaction with the halide results in a shift of charge from the carbanion to the Clorine atom. Remember that an electron is negatively charged and an electron withdrawing group will pull the dipole moment towards it (deshielding). now causing the carbanion to to become a carbocation with a positive charge and the chlorine becomes negative. The structure and size and electrophilicity if substituents around the apla carbon will effect the molecules stability and thus reactivity,
Recall that an excess of hydrogen will cause a solution to be acidic. The H+ is itself acidic, not because of it charge, but because of its proton (it is a proton). The concentration of hydrogen is refered to pH and measures acidity. The concentration of hydroxide is pOH and measures basicity. From what we just learned about charge and bond affinity what can you surmize will be affecting pH in a molecule? The presence of acid or base (or H+ and OH-) In low pH or highly acidic substrate, our example molecule Ch3-Cl will be protonated to form HCl and CH4.