Philosophy is how we do art; psychology is why. I think a great piece to talk about psychology versus philosophy is Bronzino's An Allegory with Venus and Cupid. We can see how the early Renaissance influenced Bronzino's painting. When looking at this painting, we can see how Bronzino learned to make art.
There are a lot of early Roman influences in this piece as well as the choice of oil painting on wood. Oil painting was one of the artist advancements of the Renaissance, which was near to be replaced by Baroque at the end of the 16th century. However, along with the talented brushwork, realist figures and dimension, An Allegory with Venus and Cupid is littered with symbolism.
This painting speaks to more than just the talent of Bronzino and his mastery of the philosophy of art. It also tells a story of the time in which he was alive. In the foreground, we have the incestuous relationship between Venus and her son, Cupid. To the bottom right, we have masks of the rat-like or dragon-like creature in the background. The creature is covered in grand fabrics and seems to be wearing the mask of innocents. The creature is handing something over as they hold something more behind their back. Adjacent to the creature on the left is a man who seems to be suffering from syphilis.
In the background, holding up a blue veil is Father Time (distinguished by his hourglass) and Mother Earth or Oblivion. They seem to be uncovering the scandals happening in the foreground. As Father Time pulls back the veil, he shows the audience the unsavory actions happening in the foreground. From the insect to the spreading of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to the masks which symbolize hiding true intent, it seems the sense is much more sinister than the beauty of the piece lets on.
The psychology of the piece is Bronzino calling out the French and Italian courts for their unsavory behavior while the philosophy of the art pulls from Grecian work and Renaissance ideas.