Keep in mind: cadences are much more than harmonic formulas/cliches. A cadence is, fundamentally, solely an aspect of the music's form. Harmony can be expressed in a cadence, but it's not required. Pitch as a whole isn't, in fact: a non-pitched instrument, like a snare drum, can express a cadence. It's purely about the nature of a musical idea's structural form.
All cadences communicate closure, with varying possible degrees. In terms of how they relate to form, it helps most people to think of cadences as happening in either/both the fourth & eighth measure of a larger musical phrase.
Cadences generally have some contrasting character in the musical details, when compared to the first part of the musical phrase.
For example, a melody that started off with:
- a relatively inactive rhythmic character
- a lyrical, legato character
- soft, quiet character
May punctuate its cadence with:
- active, rapid rhythmic character
- sharp, staccato character
- Loud, assertive character
Try this out yourself: sing a simple, four-measure melody. In the latter half of the fourth measure, change the character of the melody in some way to accentuate the cadence. Seriously, sing it right now!
This contrast is to make the cadence more impressionable and impactful - as contrast often does - creating a richer musical effect overall. The contrast doesn't have to be as vivid as the example that I gave above, but generally there will be some perceptual difference, even if slight.
When listening to music, listen for points of cadence & ask yourself these two things:
1) How strong is this cadence compared to the other cadences in this section/this song as a whole? It's a continuum.
2) How do the characteristics of the music differ during a cadence vs what preceded said cadence?
I hope this helps!