Honestly, short answer is no. Long answer is yes and no.
There are plenty of philosophies that contradict each other, so it is fair to argue that nothing can truly be 100% proven. This is a difficult answer to reckon with in an academic setting, where your professor may respond with "Prove it" when you present an idea to them.
What is important in a philosophical argument is not so much that your argument is 100% proven but more so that it is 0% dis-proven. That is to say, if you say "this is true," and someone else says, "but it can't be true because of x, y, and z," you must be able to give an explanation that is logical and defends your claim against x, y, and z.
The most fascinating thing about philosophy to me is that you can make what may seem like an egregious claim, and as long as you can back it up with a logical argument, you're good to go. I imagine this may not fully answer your question, but I hope there is something here that gives you a slight bit more clarity!