# Is the ammonium substituent (-NH3+) really meta-directing in electrophilic substitution?

If we make a resonance structure for the anilinium ion, with positive charge at either the *ortho* or the *para* position, we get a pentavalent nitrogen, which is not possible. So, how is the $\\ce{-NH3+}$ group *meta*-directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, e.g. in nitration of aniline under acidic conditions?

By:

Tutor
5.0 (771)

Helping you to conquer orgo!

## Still looking for help? Get the right answer, fast.

Get a free answer to a quick problem.
Most questions answered within 4 hours.

#### OR

Choose an expert and meet online. No packages or subscriptions, pay only for the time you need.