If I understand your question correctly, there are instruments that have similar pitch ranges as different voice types and there are some that extend past them, too. Even within an investment family (ie- flute family) there are instruments that cover the soprano, alto, tenor and some bass ranges. Now, each instrument whether vocal or non-vocal had its own timbre so they will not sound like the same instrument though they are in the same pitch area. Timbre is "the quality of tone distinctive of a particular singing voice or musical instrument" according to Webster's dictionary (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/timbre).
Instruments that have lower ranges than certain voice types include cello, double bass, tuba, Wagner tuba, bass trombone, bassoon, bass bassoon, contrabass bassoon, piano, some harps, some timpani drums, and others. Ask of these I know from personal experience in working as a vocal teacher and being in orchestra/band since grade school.
For more information, check out this link: https://www.earmaster.com/music-theory-online/ch02/chapter-2-7.html
I hope that answers your question or clears up some confusion/curiosities you had.