I am a certificated special education teacher, who has earned a Master's Degree in Learning Handicaps, and a familiar with this learning disability. Some learning theorists consider attention problems and hyperactivity as falling under the "other health impaired" category, while other educators consider lack of attention and hyperactivity as behavior problems.
Underscoring the confusing in defining this learning disability is the realization that these students lack the ability to recognize and maintain on relevant classroom tasks, and then shift attention to new tasks. Students with attention problems cannot screen out extraneous stimuli; irrelevant stimuli attract them -- the sirens blaring in the background. Some attention deficit students are considered easily distracted -- someone walking to the wastebasket will cause the student to get off track. Other attention deficit students are characterized as hypersensitive to stimuli. In this instance, I had a boy, who was also diagnosed as having Aspergers, who would lose control for unidentifed reasons. One day there was a listening machine in the classsroom; he asked to be tested, and the speech teacher called his mother to see permission, which she gave. His hearing was so sensitive that he could not be tested. Another student would always pull his hood over his head when he was testing to block out auditory distractions.
One of the ways in which I try to mediate short attention spans with my students is to set a timer -- anywhere from five to fifteen minutes. When the timer goes off, the student is allowed to take a two to three minute break.
Another strategy that often works is to break up the silent work time so that the student can engage in verbal feedback.
One strategy that is sometimes used, although in some districts, it is prohibited are the use of cubicles in which the student is placed to work. This practice appears to negatively identify the student so I would not encourage it.
Another problem with attention deficits is that the students, themselves, come to school with overwhelming problems and sometimes they get into the habit of tuning out so they can sort their emotions out, until it gets to the point of having learned a very bad habit.
In a small group or tutoring situation, I usually ask whether there are any concerns before the class/tutoring gets under way.
Another way I handle the walking around or asking to go to the restroom is through the "red cards," I hand out at the beginning of the week. The student is given l0 cards; he can use them all in one day, but no permission will be given the other four days; if all ten are not used, he can use the remaining cards to boost a class participation grade.
Teaching attention deficit students requires understanding and appreciation that these are legitimate behaviors that need to be mediated so that the student is more successful.
Researchers have found that often times it is the teachers' attitudes towards the ADD/
ADHD student that enables students' successes. For example, if teacher is not unduly bothered by a student's need to get up and walk around quietly, he/she has a greater chance of being successful; or if a student constantly pushes a chair back and forth or moves a desk, and is allowed to sit a bit away from the group, so as not to disturb the others, the student will concentrate better.
As a teacher for students with ADD/ADHD, it is more efficient to discuss the symptoms candidly with the student and ask for positive suggestions on dealing with classroom behaviors. Sometimes a behavior plan is important; other times, meeting with the students before class is helpful to work on some behavioral goals that will increase learning.
One of he most effective principles is not to call the student out in front of class for lack of attention or hyperactive behavior. In some instances, it is negative reinforcement; in other case, it is just embarrassing and confrontational.
At all costs, it is important to help the student learn to chart behaviors and work on no more than two goals at once. If the student is younger, use pictures to show and chart proper behavior, and have the student check mark -- good day; needs improvement day.
Usually, there is no need for remediation in instruction. It is helpful to let the student know that you are there for extra help, but it is the student's responsibility to ask for the assistance, if needed, and not disturb the class.
Once the behavior is identified and a student-teacher plan is worked out, both parties are responsible for respecting their responsibilities.
Autism is a spectrum disorder. Students having autism, share many similar and dissimilar traits with both the regular and special needs' populations, and in teaching students with autism, I pay particular attention to the students' cognitive and learning styles, as well as those rewards that act as positive reinforcers in the classroom environment.
When teaching students with autism, this acquired knowledge pertinent to their cognitive and emotional levels of development helps in planning accessible lessons that stiumulate their development of knowledge.
Although I have found and believe there is no single method for delivering academic instruction to students with autism, the instruction should be modified and differentiated, and sometimes abridged, to enhance learning.
When tutoring students with autism, a more positive learning environment can be attained by posting weekly schedules, in advance, and delineating the academic and social goals for the week.
I have found that most students with autism benefit from having a specific schedule, which includes scheduling at the same time and on the same day, each week, along with a brief notation of material to be studied, objective for successful learning, classwork and homework to be discussed, studied and read, and the method for delivering instruction, such as directed reading, videos, current publications to reference and so forth.
Using precise, concrete language and vocabulary when working with these students is extremely important inasmuch as they often experience difficulties in understanding figures of speech, idioms and jokes and terms, such as "write several examples."
It is almost important that I review the instructions for the assignments to be accepted inasmuch as some students with autism do not process auditory information accurately. Checking and rechecking expectations are really important for insuring success for the students with autism.
I teach students to use check sheets as they complete their different assignments so that they can self correct for any deficits or omissions they may have overlooked.
Looking these children in the eye is often unsettling, so try to present material in a friendly, non direct approach. Sit next to the student, rather than across from the student, and try to read their non verbal cues.
Asking questions, such as, "I just want to make sure that...) often helps them begin dialogues about the lessons or discuss some confusions they may have.
Some students with autism appear emotionally withdrawn or out of control; rather, this may really be their attempts to control their enviornments that they find difficult with which to cope, so try to work out a reinforcement schedule that will promote more academic and behavioral progress.
Begin by saying, "I want to create a better learning environment and I believe that this (idea) may be helpful in our learning. What do you think about this?"
I try to remain patient and retry some ideas I have developed that have worked with other students in the past if I notice there is a lag in our learning.
A tutoring experience can be a great time for learning and reading non verbal cues as long as the tutor (me, for instance), keeps a positive and appreciative attitude for the differences in each of these learners.
Give concrete, specific feed back on assignments; "I liked the way you used different researchers to discuss your point," or "Great, I see you colored and sorted these as directed."
Most of us have days that are better than others; so too, will students with autism. Just remember to prompt and appreciate.
Use literature that offers pictures, or suggest they draw pictures; use manipulatives when teaching math, and have them help you correlate multiplication with division, multiplication with addition, using coins or other concrete objects.
Have them read part of their assignments into a tape recorder so they can learn how their reading comes across to others.
Use mirrors to help them learn to have a pleasant demeanor when saying 'good morning,' and other pleasantries.
Use cartoon figures to strenth their understanding of moods, attitudes and general social reactions.
Many students with autism are cognitively delayed; however, they can be taught using manipulatives and music. There are many good videos coming out that improve teaching.
Others need to be introduced to basic social skills so that they do not remain "outcastes" in the classoom.
High functioning students with autism are often gifted in one particular field, and they are called studens who have asperbergers.
I have a master's degree in special education and have worked with elementary, junior high, high school and adult students in classroom and tutorial settings who had dyslexia.
Dyslexia in considered to be a specific learning disability and is a term used for one who has difficulty making various visual stimuli meaningful.
This learning disability is a disorder in s basic psychological process for visual learning. Often the student attends poorly to visual tasks, frequently exhibits reversals, inversions or omissions in writing, does not remember reading materials but remembers well material discussed in class. In a tutorial setting, if a student confuses commonly known words, instruct the student to track when reading, placing the pencil above the sentence being read. If consistent mistakes are being made, have the student write the word on an index card, place it in front of a tray filled with salt, and have the student write the word in the salt tray with the index finger of the hand normally printed or written with, spelling the word aloud as the word is printed or written. Another remediation would be to read along with the student while he is reading, so that the student develops a sense of rhythm in reading, and at the same time, correctly learns how to read unfamiliar words the first time, -- particularly helpful for the dsyphonetic.
For the student who makes math errors as a result of inattention to signs, experiences spacing difficulties with columns and rows, and confuses similar numerals, have the student turn his 8-1/2 x 11 paper sideways. In each column of lines should go only one number. Number signs should be written in read. If the problem involves more than one digit of multiplication or division, the second number in the multiplier and the divisor should be written in a different color so that the student is aware of correctly completing the processes in each line. In general, the student who has visual processing deficits prefers auditory learning and quite frequently reads under his breath during silent reading. Before assigning a book, preview the book on a film strip or give a brief summary, drawing out the student to share some experiences that can help identify with the lesson. Also, having the student listen to the narrative on tape, while reading along, is a good technique. (Just make sure they don't switch the tapes on you.) For the younger child, show pictures of the main characters and talk about what it is you want the students to learn in the target reading.
Teaching handwriting is often preferable to printing for the student with dyslexia because the student does not have to stop movement, as done when printing one letter, then the next.
If the student has an inability to integrate an intersensory process (transfer listening to reading, have the student read with a peer. The student could read some of his material onto a tape so that he can listen to himself reading.
The most frustrating aspect of this reading disability is that the student does not always make the same mistake, and thus becomes frustrated, because as a young learner, the student never knew if what was being read was accurate. The young reader has not developed a sufficient bank of knowledge, to self correct as can be expected from the more experienced reader. Encourage the reader.
Some other suggestions: In teaching grammar, use diagramming. The visual line will help discriminate subject, verb, direct object, prepositional phrases, etc.
In language comprehension, make sure that the student knows the difference between large and small; soft and hard; fragile and sturdy, etc. Sometimes it is difficult for students to accurately copy from the board, which is frequently viewed as a lack of sensory motor integration or visual perception and there is an inability to recognize geometric shapes, patterns, letters, numbers and words. Others have difficulty in visual and figure ground discrimation. For the students who have visual discrimination deficits, use bold letters to show the differences between p/q; b/d/ etc., and for those who have difficulty with figure ground discrimination, make sure the handouts or workbooks do not contain unnecessary pictures or diagrams because this student often does not visually discriminate the dominant object. Some remediation tasks for these deficits would be to match up various shapes (a small and a large circle), designs (triangles of different sizes), etc.
Having spatial relations deficits implies that those with these difficulties have trouble reproducing a pattern on a peg board.
These children also have difficulty in recognizing the sequence of letters in a word or the sequence of words in a sentence.
It is important to ascertain the nature of the various reading deficit(s), and give instruction emphasizing how it(they) can be remediated.
Elementary math is multifaceted. In teaching the youngest, how to count, and then complete simple digit addition and subtraction to multi-digit addition and subtraction, along with borrowing and regroup, consumes much of the curricula the first two and a half years, along with basic geometric shapes being taught. Most times I use manipulatives and real money in showing how the borrowing from a dime to twenty-five cents takes place, which seems a more 'realistic learning experience' for the students.
As we move into multiplication and division, again manipulatives are used, and children are taught how multiplication and division contain basic number factors that can be exchanged.
As we get into fractions, students are taught to create their own fraction pies, and we begin the process with adding and subtracting fractions with common denominators, and then changing the resulting answers into the lowest form. Thereafter, we work on mixed fractions, and again spend time in changing mixed fractions to having like denominators, and then changing answers into their lowest common forms.
Lastly, we work on multiplication and division, and if students learned the factors less rigorously, multiplication factors are reintroduced, along with teaching multiplication and division of fractions.
Around fifth and sixth grades, we introduce children into some basic algebraic expressions, which knowledge requires that the students notice the number signs and basic number facts.
During teaching, I observe which basic number operations need reteaching so the students can relearn basic skills along with the new and challenging math processes.
English is the native language of the United States and has many Latin, French, Spanish and German roots. As a certificated teacher in both Georgia and California, who also has a master's in learning handicaps and continuing education in reading and behavior modification, I have taught English over the years to primary, junior high, high school and adult students seeking to earn their high school diplomas. American English is somewhat different from the 'English" spoken and written in England or taught as a second language.
For example, in England 'bowling' is referred to as 'billiards' and the "toilet" is sometimes referred to as the "john" here in America, whereas in England it is called, "the Water closet."
One of the first things, I try to do is to enliven the tutoring session with humor. For example, I ask the students, "What is a ring?" and most reply, "It is a piece of jewelry worn around the finger." Agreeing with that definition, I then turn to the common phrase, "Give me a ring," which means, "Call me." Explaining the differences in the usage of the same word as both a noun and a verb is mystifying at first, but then we get on track, and it becomes fun. The next phase would be idioms, such as "Birds of a feather flock together," or "Don't put all your eggs in one basket. Once explained, the students will then recant some idioms in their own culture.
Our second phase of learning English is understanding the regional dialects and use of phrases throughout the United States. For example, "you're a peach," does not mean you are a fruit, "but someone sweet and helpful." In this phase, we also discuss 'figures of speech,' -- an expression, as a metaphor or simile, that uses words that are not in their literal sense,but rather to produce a fanciful or vivid impression, such as "His eyes lit up as lights on a Christmas tree, when he saw her coming into the room."
Our third step would be to discuss verb usage. Most languages put the pronouns at the end of the verb, so it is difficult for them to understand our pronoun usage as separate words. In addition, students learning English have difficulty with "you," being both a familiar and a general pronoun.
Then the pronoun "it" which is in the neutral gender is discussed; many languages only use male and female gender when speaking, so we discuss the difference between "Harry, the pet dog," who would be called "he/him," as opposed to a stray dog, who would be called, "it" since we do not know the gender.
A this point we would study the present, past and future tense of the verb "to be," along with some exceptions to the rule for adding "ed," to form the past tense. "Swim" is the present tense of the verb; past tense is "swam," and past perfect is "I have swum."
We would constantly review how to make singular nouns become plural and learn the common rules; for example if a noun ends in "y," as in "baby," drop the "y" and add "ies." We would discuss the fact that in English we usually put our adjectives before the nouns, there is a common way to form positive, comparative and superlative nouns --"pretty, prettier, prettiest," and note that if the adjective has more than two syllables, we say "beautiful/positive,," "more beautiful/comparative," and "most beautiful, "superlative." This is the fun part. We could go to a park and look at the trees. Count the trees, describe them, and t hen order them as "pretty, prettier, prettiest," and "ugly, uglier and ugliest."
In teaching English we are remind our students of the culture of the English speaking people, such as using the word, "May," when making a request as opposed to using "can," which means being able to do something. We will also talk about letter writing and common ways in which to answer the phone.
Since students learning "English as a second language" are often from different cultural groups, it is important that the teacher take care not to exhibit prejudice or favoritism towards any specific cultural group.
It is important to provide notebooks in which students can write their new vocabulary, comments and questions, which the teacher can read/review weekly. Another important technique is to make each subject lesson as multi modal in presentation as possible -- utilize visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, and olfactory senses as much as possible in presenting material.
An "ice breaker" activity during the first couple of days would be to have commonly asked questions, "Describe the school you attended before coming to Georgia," provide opportunities for speaking and making friends.
Teaching English to younger children is often easier since they frequently engage in social conversation and learn the names of commonly used daily items. Teachers can integrate this knowledge and understanding more completely by presenting objects which students can touch and discuss; i.e., balls are round -- measure the circumference. Have a tape measure and ball out; Simple sentences cam integrate sheltered English techniques, along with this multi modal approach which utilizes prior knowledge, along with differentiating the instruction for all learners. It also allows for more complete language development and social interaction. Write some of the questions asked during the lesson, along with students' answers, on the board, for students to write in their notebooks.
Here are some examples for specific subjects: In math, students seem to learn the numbers and basic numerical processes more easily. Perhaps this is due to the fact that they do not need a working knowledge of subject-verb agreement and pronoun usages. In planing a math lesson, teachers might integrate some common items, such as knives and forks, into word problems to be solved to increase working vocabulary and math skills. The more manipulatives used (such as 'real' knives and forks' the more likely their vocabularies and skills will increase. This multi modality lesson strengthens through the use of visual, auditory and tactile senses.
In teaching adults English, role playing typical daily exercises,such as cooking or going to the bank, helps adults learn the vocabulary within the context of specific situations.
In beginning ESOL classes, vocabulary and experiences are verbalized in short sentences. After the learner has acquired an approximate 500 word vocabulary, grammar is gradually built into the lesson plan, initially integrating the present tense, the simple past tense and the future tense.
Capitalization and punctuation are then presented as is the proper use of pronouns.
Using manipulatives to present examples of "he, she, it, they, us, we" is often helpful, and the interactive game playing of identifying the groups strengthens learning since many foreign languages do not have independent pronouns; personages are attached in the verb endings. Also, many languages do not have the neuter "it," and examples of a pet dog as opposed to an unknown stray dog, strengthen the use of the gender pronoun for the dog when it is known to be a female or male versus the use of "it," when the gender has not been identified.
The pronoun "you," which can be used as the personal form for "you, Sam," or the general "you," and in "you, class, please open your books," is often confusing as is best taught by having students pair up, narrating correct examples. It is interactive and can be cohesive in helping the class work together in learning.
The more interactive the class is the more attention students will give to the lessons; also, using a multi modality in teaching helps: For example, auditory teaching can be accomplished by teaching simple songs in English; tactile examples can be seen in writing words in sand or salt or on the blackboard, for the younger students, in rice krispies or clay; visual examples are seeing the lessons in print. Examples of kinesthetic learning are writing in one's notebook, on the computer, or on the white boards. Often times, kinesthetic and tactile learning interchange.
Learning is enhanced when the students feel accepted by their classroom peers and teachers and the lessons are interactive and fun.
There are many ways to teach lessons in the content areas; for example, in geography, utilize puzzle maps to learn continents, countries, states, cities, borders, and the like. After, have the students copy the vocabulary into their notebooks. One of the greatest lessons I had was when I brought in large grapefruits and the students drew the continents and hemispheres on them.
In biology, have them gather leaves and write the names of the tree, veins, etc., directly on the leaves.
I am a certificated teacher, credentialed in Georgia and California, to teach ESOL.
Grammar can be described as the systematic analysis of the classes and structure of words and of their arrangements and inter-
relationships in larger constructions.
For example, before we discuss teaching grammar, think of the word, "can," which can be used as either a noun or verb." As a noun, the word word "can" is defined as a metal container; however, it is also slang for "a toilet." The plural of "can" is formed by adding an "s" the usual way nouns are made plural in English. It is not a noun ending in an "f" or "y," which requires changing those letters to other letters to form the plurals.
The verb, "can" which means 'know how to" can be classified as an irregular verb: Present: can; past could, the future tense would be stated as, "will be able to," past perfect would be: "I could have."
In teaching grammar, it is important to identify the main requirements for a complee sentence: A subject and a verb, such as "I can." Both younger and ESOL learners can be taught simultaneously that all sentences begin with a capital letter and end with some type of punctuation, usually a period.
It is best to teach grammar in the present tense and have the students memorize the verb "to be," I am; you are; he, she, it (singular of the verb to be). Plural of the verb to be: We are; you are; they are.
Explain there is no "personal" you in English; the singular "you" is used when talking to one person or the class as a whole; the plural, "you" refers to members of a group; i.e., "Each of you will look at your assignments."
As the students become more proficient, objects (direct) can be added to the sentences, and it is as\t this point, that I begin to teach diagramming a sentence.
subject !verb /direct object
Have the stude3nts copy the outline on the board onto their notebooks. (I have already drawn lines into the notebooks, so that they can more easily labe;/
Taking another look at the sentence, I explain the pronoun, reinforcing that pronouns are separate words, unlike many languages which put the person/(s) at the end of the verb.
I usually have students work with each other in charting the present tence of the verb "to be" and giving each other practice sentences. Then I move to the past tense: I was; you were; he, she it was' explaining that "you," whether it is used singularly or plural always takes a plural verb. The plurals for past tense are: We were; you were; they were.
At this point, I explain the neuter "it" to the students and explain that unless we know the specific gender of an animal, it is an "it." The future tense is then taught.
It is not until the 3rd or 4th grade/level, that we would begin studying gerunds and participles along with future and past perfect verb tenses
At the second level we would begin learning how to form the plural for nouns that do not have an "s" ending, such as "leaf/leaves," "chidl/children," "church/Cchurches," "deer/deer."
At this level, we would also begin to study positive, comparative, and superlative adjectives and adverbs: Good, better, best;
pretty, prettier, prettiest; bad, worse, worst, and note that the adjectives modify nouns and adverbs modify a=verbs.
At the third level, we would begin to study homophones and heteronyms, using some games
to lighten up the monotony. A fun way to teach younger studednts is to throw a ball, spelling a homphone, "bear," and have the student spell the other "bare." The same with the word "re/cord", they would have to tell me the other heteronym "record/."
Irregularly formed noun plurals, verb tenses and positive, comparative and superlative adjectives, adverbs could be identified from the subject literature that is being read by students as the teacher copies pertinent sentences for grammar exercises.
There are many card games out with words wherein the developing reader can use the cards to put together a sentence and his group mates can identify the parts of speech.
As the reader becomes more proficient in his writing, he can be introduced to the correct useages for quotation marks and other punctuation forms.
Literature provides perspection to its readers on the past and the present, and also lends itself to provide visions for the future.
Literature exposes readers to many different cultures, mores and norms, and what is so interesting is that the novels of yesteryear may seem inconsequential today, but in reading about the past, one gains a different experience in understanding the present.
Literature teaches us about people, about their emotions, desires and fears and allows the audience to grown in empathy and understanding for different point of views.
Some literature is timeless. Thin of Ulysses and his perils in war; after returning home, his son does not trust his recognition; his wife is being pursued by suitors, who want to control her wealth and status -- common elements occurring in the lives of men and women returning from war today. The proverty narrated by Dickents is not a far tale from the emotional and philosophical proverty existing among our youth today. Rather, these stories tell of life's strifes in a different vernacular but can well be understood by today's readers.
Readers are now being exposed to the abundantly rich literature in the Afghani and Iranian societies, and realize that there writers have long written about their loves, values and strifes.
Cultural and religious differences appear in many love stories -- in both East and Western Culture.
Literature compels us to look within ourselves for disparities which may make us less accepting than previously thought.
Literature is read in many genres == from the epic poems and plays of the Greeks and the Romans to the modern day drams and novellas. Literature speaks to us in poetic form, in theatrical form and musical form.
Historic literature is often found in novels although it informs the reader of social and economic customers of the era in which it was written.
The reader learns of society's prejudices and social strifes that prompt its characters to act in a way that tells the reader of the cultural and social poverty that prompted the character to take a less altruistic path, oer perhaps a path embedded in greed and jealousy.
I am a certified teacher in Georgia and California, who has worked with many students who have difficulty integrating phonic into reading unfamiliar words. I have earned a master's degree in learning handicaps and am familiar with many strategies to assist students learn speech sounds by their alphabetical production to correctly speak and read.
Students will be given instruction in learning to decode the consonant letter sounds and secondary sounds of the letters in the alphabet, such as "g," "k," etc. and common blends, such as "ch," "ing," "pre," etc.
Included in this instruction, students will review the vowel sounds, both long and short -- emphasizing that when two vowels appear in one syllable, the first vowel usually says its letter name, "pane," == long "a" while the second vowel is silent.
Students will be taught about syllables, though putting their index fingers on their lips, to count how many times their lips move, which equals the number of syllables in the word; i.e., syl la bles (3).
Students will be taught about dipthongs -- "a combination of two vowel sounds in one syllable; i.e., oil "oi = l."
Students will be taught common spelling rules, such as "i" before "e," except as in "neighbor and weigh," along with other rules, such as when adding an ending to a word that ends in "y," drop the "y" and add "ies," or "ed," as in "ally/allies" or "ally/allied." Also, students will review exceptions to the rule of adding "s" to form a plural of noun, such as "child/ children," "man/men," "sheep/sheep," and so forth and will be given instruction on rules for the silent "h," as in "heir."
Students will be taught to use the diction- ary so as to be able to correctly pronounce the word as it is used in the context of the narrative. In other words, they will learn to not confuse the pronounciation of the heteronyms, such as "record," meaning either "rek'ard" a written account or "ri'kord" -- make permanently reprodu- cibile as on tape or phonograph.
Instruction will be given on homophones.
"bare/bear,"; antonyms, "hot/cold," and synonyms, "caring/kind."
Phonics will be integrated into reading short passages so that it will be less tedious to learn.
Tape recorders may be used so that the students can hear themselves say the words. In addition, if sounds are troublesome, we will use salt trays to write the word/blend in salt and repeat it, along with other examples where the sound occurs.
I am a certificated teacher in Georgia and have a master's degree in learning disabilities. Throughout my teaching career, I have worked with young children through adults, who were trying to earn their high school diplomas, with reading.
As we know, one must first develop skill in reading the printed letter/characters that form the printed words. For many students, to insure accuracy when reading, they are taught to track, placing the pencil above the words in the line that they are reading to insure accuracy. For a beginning reader, vocabulary may be read and discussed before the literary selection is read. For the reader who has little confidence, in a small group setting, the student will read along with the teacher. If there is an unknown word, the teacher will read the word, so as not to stop the rhythm and insure that the student learns the correct pronunciation, etc. so there is no need to re=learn and incorrectly read word or phrase.
Perhaps the student has a learning disability in reading, or has never learned to read fluently and identify the main idea or purpose of the writing. Tutoring offers the student the opportunity to discuss what he believes the purpose, main idea, significance, and point of view in the writing, while pointing to specific examples that support his answer.
Teaching students to develop a sense of rhythm when reading involves not only developing an auditory flow, but learning to stop at periods and pause a second at commas. In other words, reviewing the purpose of punctuation in the target selection.
It is also important that the student develop skill in previewing the material by reading the first paragraph, topic headlines and the last two paragraphs of the chapter or selection. After the student has read a paragraph, he is asked the main idea of the paragraph. Along with developing a sense of comprehension, the student is taught to infer the purpose for the writing and to increase vocabulary from the context in which vocabulary is used during the target selection. For example, the word "well" can be used as an adverb, meaning feeling okay or as a noun, meaning a place where water is drawn.
Students are taught to extract data from their readings. For example, what is the purpose of the story, folktale, parable, play or history selection? For the older student, he is taught to think of the writing in terms of the culture and time in history in which it was written.
Students are taught to be discerning readers. For example, what are some things the student might want to ask of the main characters? Was the story believable, etc.
Students will be taught how to read a table of contents, glossary and use a dictionary, thesaurus and atlas, as well as common prefixes and suffixes.
I am a certificated teacher in Georgia, who has earned a master's degree in special education. "Special needs" is an all inclusive category covering any student or adult who has an emotional, physical or behavioral disorder, including those who have cognitive delays and learning disabilities, that significantly impacts one's ability to enjoy or participate in a lifestyle, he or she might have had, had the disability not occurred.
I stress the fact that most students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficits have average or above average intelligence and introduce them to famous people who have had similar learning disabilities; i.e., Thomas Edison was very attention deficit/hyperactive. General Patton was never able to read others' handwriting, being that he suffered from dyslexia.
Those who have emotional disabilities may suffer from bipolar disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injuries, schizophrenia, etc. Schizophrenia is usually not diagnosed until mid teens; and I try to bring in articles about contemporary peoples' battles and successes in these areas.
Essentially, students need to understand that they are not uncommonly different just because they have learning and/or emotional, behavioral disabilities, and I try to begin the list of strategies we will utilize to assist in learning.
One idea that really worked for me when I was teaching teens was taking them to the public library; they were not allowed to use cell phones so that method of distraction was easily eliminated, and they had the opportunities to see people of varying ages and ethnicities asking the librarians for help finding books and in enrolling in classes.
Many people with learning disabilities and behavioral disabilities have difficulties with organization. I require that they keep a daily agenda and a separate notebook for each subject, and also, that they write a daily goal and at the end of the lesson, they tell me what went well and something to which they should devote more time and attention.issue requires more attention, arrangements
If students have difficulty in conceptualizing, such as borrowing and regrouping I utilize real money and teach them how a quarter can be looked at as 25 pennies, five nickles or two dimes and a nickel. At times, this abstract thinking has evaded their consciousness so we work on those things, along with discussing such noun concepts as the singular and plural of sugar is sugar, unless there are different brands. They often laugh when I show them a bowl of sugar and call it sugars.
At times, academic performance becomes more sporadic and that requires that the student be made accountable in completing missed or incomplete assignments at home, at lunchtime, after having eaten, or during 'free choice activity' time, so we begin timeliness for successful completion of long term projects, such as book reports Sometimes students who lack adequate memories for remembering characters will be given an abridged version of a book, to learn about the main characters (such as "Ulysses") and as their skill develops we can move on to a more comprehensively version of "Ulysses." (See The Jameson abridged versions of core literature.) r. Sometimes the student with physical needs may need an assistive technology device, such as a computer or pencil grip, or even extended time, which must be given by all teachers and that student is taught to request the accommodations through verbal rehearsal.
In essence, those with "special needs," are a diverse group, ranging from those who need some minor academic or work modifications to assist them in becoming social and economic members of their community, and I try to help my students and their families become aware of services in the community, (such as a group for teens with autism), as well as the public schools, that may offer additional support.
There are many ways to teach and help people learn, but usually specially learning programs should be designed and implemented to fit the needs required, and if there is an active IEP, I will offer suggestions to the students and parents.
Although spelling is not considered to be indicative of one's intelligence, misspellings often detract from one's written work, so I try to make a list of commonly used words for each student that he/she misspells.
In addition, I teach the students to use the guide words in the dictionary to find words and also to use the spell check on the computer. However, simultaneously with teaching students to use the spell check, I teach them about learning to distinguish homonyms, such as "son" and "sun," inasmuch as the improper use of these words is not always correct on the spell check. However, sometimes the grammar check will correct these errors so I teach them how to use grammar checks.
In addition, it is important to teach the common rules for spelling, such as when to capitalize: Beginning of sentences, specific names of people and places. I also try to teach how to change the "y" to "ies" when forming plurals and other common rules.
Spelling is about learning how to use the rules, and these rules can be built in as the students become better writers.
When teaching younger children homonymns, we often play a game of checkers...if the students spell the word correctly, he gets to move a checker; if he/she/they get it wrong, I have the opportunity to move a piece.
Just a few ideas for making learning fun.
There are many genres in writing or literary productions, ranging from the simple love letter to poetry, short stories, essays, commentaries and literary compositions, theatrical plays, tales, novels, journals, and textbooks. Biographies and autobiographies can also be considered examples of writing.
In academica, writing can be described as answering questions in the content areas of academic subjects, including writing word problems for math.
Examples of persuasive writing can be described as the narrative found in advertising or political forums, or in outlines for debates. Persuasive writing is considered subjective, whereas writing scientific articles or factual reports on historial events or accidents can be considered examles of objective writing.
Novels present opportunities for the reader to learn more about an historical period of time, other cultures and others' ways of thinking and observing different mores and cultural values.
During the Middle Ages play were often the only means by which the general public could be given an understanding of differing points of view of a relevant topic. Even today, plays often deal with social and political ideologies and changing cultural values.
Newspapers and magazins often contain examples of both subjective and objective writings, as do essays and political newsletters. Even phone books contain objecive examples of writing by narrating names, addresses and phone numbers, while presenting subjective narrative in the form of yellow page advertising.
In each part of the country, there are acceptable forms of jargon used in subjective writing, whereas in objective writing standard rules of English are expected to be utilized in the narrative presentations.