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Heat

Heat is a form of energy. It is the energy of the motion of molecules. Even though heat and energy are fundamentally the same dimension, we measure and calculate them differently. We define a calorie (note the lower-case 'c') as the amount of heat that increases the temperature of a gram of liquid water one degree C. The BTU, the English unit of heat, is the amount of heat that increases the temperature of a pound of liquid water one degree F. A food Calorie (note upper case 'C' ) is one thousand heat calories of usable food energy. That is, the food Calorie reflects the type of living thing eating AND USING the energy. So the food Calorie depends on the type of (animal) eating it. A cow or a termite could get much more food value from a head of lettuce than a human being can, so what is a Calorie for us would be different for them.

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