Elementary Math Help

In this section, you will find explanations to many mathematical processes learned in elementary school, grades 1-8. The navigation (on the left) is set up to progress in a general order of how topics are learned; however, you (students, parents, and tutors) may find it more helpful to simply look for the topic you need help with. Nearly every main page has sub-pages, because nearly every general topic can be explained more thoroughly. Many of the pages have quizzes (multiple choice, fill in the blank) for students to practice the skill or skills being discussed. Below, you will find a brief description of each page, as well as links to the page and subpages.

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Addition is the first and most important lesson for beginning math students. This lesson explains
basic types of addition. First, we cover adding one digit numbers. Then we move onto two digit
numbers, with and without carrying. We’ve included illustrations to help explain these concepts,
and practice problems for students to work with.


The opposite of addition, subtraction is the process of “taking away” one number from another.

This group of lessons covers different types of subtraction, starting with the simplest: subtracting
one digit numbers
. We then walk through subtraction involving two digit numbers, first
subtraction without borrowing, then subtraction with borrowing.


You can think of multiplication as a quick way of adding multiple numbers at once. Our

multiplication lessons include an overview and times table you can use for multiplication

practice. Once you’re comfortable multiplying one and two digit numbers, we can help you

understand more advanced topics like multiplying decimals, multiplying by tens, exponents, and
square roots.

Basic Division

If you need a quick primer on division, we’ve got you covered. This lesson introduces the

concept of division and walks you through some basic division problems.

Long Division

Long division is an useful way to tackle division problems you can’t solve in your head. Our

lessons on long division explain the concept in a step-by-step way. Work through a detailed

practice problem with us, then move onto more advanced topics: dividing by tens, division with

decimals, and long division with remainders.

Rounding Numbers and Place Value

These lessons introduce place value of digits in numbers—both whole and decimal. Practice

naming them and identifying digits with our examples. Then we move on to rounding numbers,

which is based on place value of each digit. Rounding is taught using terms such as “round to

the nearest hundred.”

Factors and Multiples

Do you know the difference between a factor and a multiple? Read on for simple definitions.

We include detailed lessons on both factors and multiples. We also include a lesson on prime factorization, which is used to find the prime factors of a number.


This comprehensive set of lessons introduces you to the subject of fractions. Learn how to

understand and evaluate fractions with our lessons on comparing fractions, expanding and reducing fractions, and finding the common denominator of a fraction. If you’re having trouble solving problems involving fractions, we can help explain how to add or subtract fractions, multiply fractions, and divide fractions. We also cover special types of fractions, including mixed numbers and improper fractions.

Converting Between Fractions, Decimals, and Percents

How do you turn a fraction into a decimal, or a decimal into a percent? This lesson on

conversions explains a variety of methods, and number conversion is easier than it looks. These

methods all involve basic operations or simple algebra.


Need to know the difference between English and metric measurements? Looking for a list of

common metric prefixes? This lesson provides an overview of different measurement systems and how to convert between them.


Understanding different shapes is an important step for elementary students. This lesson

describes all of the basic shapes that early math students should know. We define and illustrate

each shape, and describe the differences between them.

Area and Perimeter

Area and perimeter are calculations made on different shapes. Learn how they’re defined in this

lesson, then go into more detail on our complete lessons on finding the areas of shapes and

finding perimeters.

Telling Time

This lesson introduces how to read an analog clock and describes how to read the hour hand

and minute hand. Learn about the difference between AM and PM, as well as how to figure out

elapsed time (how much time has passed).


Learn how to recognize and count money in this set of lessons. The first lesson includes images

of all US currency and tips for counting money. From there, you can move onto more detailed

lessons on adding and subtracting money, multiplying and dividing money, calculating discounts, and calculating tax.

Positive and Negative Numbers

This lesson introduces the difference between positive numbers (having something) and

negative numbers (lacking something). Learn the proper notation for negative numbers (how to

write a negative number) and how to count negative numbers. Other lessons go into more detail

on comparing, adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing positive and negative numbers, as

well as how to deal with negative fractions, decimals and percents.

Mean, Median, and Mode

This lesson introduces the three concepts behind averaging numbers: mean, median, and

mode. Learn how these concepts are different from each other, as well as how to calculate each

with a series of numbers.

Solving Equations

In these lessons, you’ll receive an introduction to solving equations. We begin with “finding the

missing number,” then move on to solving equations with variables (such as x or y), as well

as how to combine like terms and solving proportions. Solving equations is a basic prealgebra concept helpful for middle schoolers who are getting ready to move to junior high.

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