Chemistry, in my opinion, is the most widely applied subject in the educational system. You can apply chemistry when you're cooking, cleaning, filling up your car, brewing beer or wine, welding, dating (carbon and speed dating), and thousands of industrial processes. I once heard from one of my chemistry professors, Dr. Chad Morris, "Chemistry is applied physics, and physics is applied math...
Written by tutor Heidi R.
When an electron pair donor known as a nucleophile reacts with a SP3 hybridized carbon with a good leaving group attached to it, a reaction will occur known as nucleophilic substitution. There are two main mechanisms which show how this reaction occurs. In this text we will discuss the mechanisms and summarize the main features...
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
Written by tutor Raffi H.
This article assumes that the reader is reasonably familiar with the basic notions of structure, nomenclature and stereochemistry normally taught during the early stages of an Organic Chemistry course. In particular, the reader should be familiar with Organic Halides, as well as the concepts of Chirality, R,S-Configuration and...
Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Written by tutor Oleg Y.
All processes can be classified into one of two categories: exothermic and endothermic. In an exothermic process, energy is released, while in an endothermic process, energy is stored. This section will specifically cover exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions, but almost any process can be described as releasing or storing...
Written by tutor Mark M.
An organic elimination reaction is one where a starting product breaks into two new products that contain all the atoms of the original. Two categories of elimination reaction are identified: the E1 and E2.
E2 elimination reactions involve the combined steps of one carbon atom losing a hydrogen atom to a base, and a second carbon atom...