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     Under Harmer’s theory, affect, agency, achievement, attitude, and activities are all crucial aspects of motivation. To focus on improving affect positivity, teachers can try to minimize their time spent as controllers, introduce more colorful (and carefully chosen colors of) classroom decorations, and aim for more activities and class discussions on topics that the students find interesting independent of their language learning.        To improve motivation with activities, teachers should attempt to strike a balance between challenge and exhaustion. Very simple activities will not motivate the students, and will cause affect to decrease if used after students have proclaimed them to be “too easy” or if used frequently/repetitively.        To improve motivation via achievement, teachers must first determine what kind of achievement is important to their students. In some classrooms,... read more

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