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Computer Programming Made Easy: Part 2 of 3

This is the second part of the Computer Programming three part blog post. Here is a synopsis of the background knowledge and the necessary terminology needed before writing a computer program. Those students who are curious about writing computer programs, those who are being home-schooled, or those who are in special education programs will find this post especially useful. I intend to prepare you to speak the language of computer programmers. This will also prepare you for the computer programming that we will engage in my next blog post of this series. If you have already written a computer program you will get a review of the basics as well as get a better understanding of what happens behind the scenes. On a humorous note, we are not talking about the sage on the stage, but the guide on the side.
 
Introduction to Computer Programming Terminology:
1. A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a computer or a machine.
2. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine or they can be used to express algorithms.
3. A computer programming language is a language used to write computer programs, which involve a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and it may also control external devices such as printers, disk drives, robots.
4. The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax and semantics. Syntax refers to the form of programming languages, while semantics refers to the meaning of programming languages.
5. Some languages are defined by a specification document while other languages have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference. For example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard. Perl has a dominant implementation or a reference.
6. To program a computer, we have to use a programming language of some sort.
7. There are many different programming languages such as Java, C, C++, Python, Perl, and JavaScript. I will be using the C++ programming language in the programming example that I will discuss in the third part of this three-part blog post.
8. C++ is an object-oriented higher-level language. It is also a compiled language. Compiling allows you the opportunity to correct errors and define all your data types before your run the program.
9. A language is typed if the specification of every operation defines types of data to which the operation is applicable, with the implication that it is not applicable to other types.
10. In contrast, an untyped language such as assembly language allows any operation to be performed on any data and it is usually a sequences of bits of various lengths.
11. In static typed languages, all expressions have their types determined prior to when the program is executed and this is typically at compile-time.
12. However, dynamically typed languages do not require the programmer to write explicit type annotations on expressions.
13. Perl, Ruby and Python uses dynamically typed. C, C++, and Java are statically typed languages.
14. Compiled languages are also faster than interpreted languages since they are converted to byte-code for the specific operating system that your computer uses after they are compiled into an executable file.
15. Byte-code is the series of zeros and ones that we call digital information. Once the program is compiled successfully it is converted to byte-code. This byte-code is what makes gives instructions to the  computer to do tasks for you. It can use algorithms or have a certain behavior.
16. Information can be inputted into a computer in various different ways. You can type the information, read it from a file, or read it from a database.
17. Information can also be outputted from a computer in different ways. It can be displayed on the terminal, written to a file, or written to a database.

In our computer program example, we will be using the keyboard to input information, and we will use the terminal or screen to output information. This computer program will be discussed in the next blog post in this series.
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