When I tutor people especially in the more challenging science courses like Microbiology and Anatomy and Physiology I see students just memorizing and not understanding to overall picture. Especially in Microbiology where you have to learn the make up of different viruses and bacterial cells then use that information to see how that antibiotic works. What I found to work best is to ask why to every question. For example gram negatives microbes have a LPS layer on the outside. Now why is that important? When this breaks down it can cause septic shock in the patient. This is important information that if you can create connection it is easy to remember, and you can actually think about problem, not just regurgitating information I see way to often. Hope this can help some people the way it helped me, and some of my classmates I taught this process to.