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the physical and chemical properties of elements should be most similar within the same?

a. period
b. group
c. quantum level
d. oxidation state
I figured it would was b. group
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3 Answers

The chemical properties depend on the number of valence shell electrons since these electrons participate in chemical bond formation with other elements. The elements are arranged in the periodic table in such a way that the elements having same number of electrons in the valence shell are grouped together. 
Therefore the chemical properties of the elements present in the same group are similar. As for example the halogens (Group VII) made up of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. In fact since they all seven electrons in the valence shell they are therefore called halogens. All halogens exhibit similar chemical properties. It is true for all other groups. 
The physical properties like melting point , boiling point partially depend on the valence shell and it also depends on the type of interactions between the atoms of the element. Thus to some extent it shows similarity along a group. 
Hi Dana, yes you are correct it is the group, a nice way to check is via a periodic table, elements that are similar are "grouped" vertically, and those pesky periods are horizontal.
Quatum levels deal with spin of the electron, and oxidation or oxidized elements are positive with losing their crazy electrons.
The reason for the similarity in a group is due the outer shell with valence electrons. So in Group 1A, which contains H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr, they have one valence electron or some may have similar physical properties as well ex. Noble Gases.
Hope that helps ya.


The group is also known as a family or column. There are 18 groups in the periodic table. All the elements in a particular group have similar chemistry because the outer shells contain the same number of electrons. For example sodium (Na) and potassium (K) valence electrons are in the S shell. The period or row tells you the number of the shell. For Na, it has a 3S electron  while K has a 4S electron based on quantum theory. Sodium has 11 electrons and is represented as 1S2 2S2 2P6 3S1. See if you can figure out the electronic configuration for potassium knowing that it has one 4S electron.
You're right, it is the group. The group is determined by the number of valence (outer) electrons an atom has, and this number determines its chemical properties. For example, the elements in group I consisting of hydrogen and the so-called alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium etc.) have one valence electron which determines their chemical reactivity.