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Any help finding answers to my study guide. I have a big test coming up

( C) 1. People who believe that the way we do things in the United States is the best, or only, way to do things are:
a. hypocrites.
b. enacting the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
c. ethnocentric.
d. influenced by their master status.
e. engaged in cultural relativity.

( D) 2. While it is difficult to define culture, sociologists have settled on a few standard definitions. A simple way to define culture is that culture is what we have, what we do, and
a. how we manage our economy, neoliberal free trade and social welfare.
b. what is in our heads, our values, knowledge, and beliefs.
c. what we worship, our religions and beliefs in the supernatural.
d. how we interact with hegemony, popular entertainment, and markets.
e. the particular ways in which we are socialized.

3. Sociologists use the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis to discuss culture and language. In lecture, I used the example of our inability to fully translate everything between two languages. In essence, Sapir-Whorf argues that
a. language is separate from culture; it is understood in terms of phonemes, or individual sounds.
b. English is a superior language because of the number of words and symbols it incorporates.
c. Theodore Adorno’s cultural theories of language are critical in understanding technology.
d. language is a weak tool for understanding culture because almost everyone speaks English.
e. language influences how we see the world, how we think, and therefore shapes our worldview.

4. The American flag and the English word for “chair” are all things that stand in for something else. The flag means patriotism and American values; sounds create meaning through language. These are examples of
a. material culture.
b. primary socialization.
c. symbols.
d. the cultural toolkit.
e. the definition of the situation.

5. Adorno argues that the culture industry
a. turns creativity into commodity and pleasure into consumption.
b. allows for the expansion of creativity into all parts of life.
c. expands the market for free creative expression.
d. promotes youth subculture and encourages radical thinking.
e. replaces authentic culture with hybrid versions of culture that then remain unchanging.

6. Stuart thought that the culture industry was a great theory overall, but he found that it didn’t fully explain the dynamism of youth subculture. Instead, this theory elevated more traditional art over youth subcultural art. In general, Stuart’s main criticism of the culture industry theory is that it is
a. old-fashioned.
b. based in structural functionalism.
c. elitist.
d. glorifying the working class.
e. focused on mass media.

7. As a product of the culture industry, television, film, and media services have
a. increasingly become more varied with more and more choices; we can now gain the information we need to become active world citizens.
b. been instrumental in spreading critical thinking and critical news around the world.
c. Americanized popular culture, and replaced news with entertainment, leaving us without the information we need to make informed decisions.
d. challenged cultural hegemony and cultural imperialism by spreading American ideals while preserving local culture.
e. focused on important events in all parts of the world, replacing a U.S. focus with an increasingly cosmopolitan ideal.

8. Which sentence best describes the effects that globalization has had on languages?
a. As news becomes international, accurate translation becomes more of a problem.
b. English is now one of the many, many languages which have global hegemony.
c. Americans are increasingly becoming multi-lingual.
d. With globalization, many lost languages are being discovered and renewed.
e. English is becoming dominant world-wide, while indigenous languages are being lost.

9. World television and media services have
a. increasingly become more varied with more and more choices.
b. been instrumental in spreading critical thinking and critical news.
c. been consolidated into a few hands, replacing news with more popular entertainment.
d. challenged cultural hegemony and cultural imperialism by spreading American ideals.
e. focused on important events in all parts of the world, instead of focusing on the U.S.

10. Bhangra, the music that was developed by Indian immigrants in England, based on American hip hop music, represents one possible method for managing the Americanization of culture. Sociologists call Bhangra a _________ cultural form.
a. hybrid
b. expressive
c. social
d. hegemonic
e. colonial

11. Sociologists classify organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), and anti-government militias as
a. subcultures.
b. conflict theory.
c. imperialist cultures.
d. the culture industry.
e. countercultures.

12. Sociologists classify groups of people who share an enjoyment of something like a particular type of music or sport, who develop a language to talk about that music or sport, and share a material culture related to that music or sport as
a. countercultures.
b. the culture industry.
c. leisure.
d. subcultures.
e. expressive cultures.

13. People belong to multiple cultures at the same time.
a. True.
b. False.

14. We often think that art “culture” is static, but cultural forms can move and change; some artistic expressions can move from popular culture to “high art” and some can fall from “high art” to become popular culture.
a. True
b. False.

15. One of the main concerns about globalization and culture is that
a. cultural production will quickly become too expensive for ordinary people to enjoy.
b. local cultures will become “Americanized,” and lose their meaning.
c. citizens will become confused about which culture to follow, their own or someone else’s.
d. foreign cultures will begin to negatively affect the dominant American culture.
e. when cultures change too quickly, it leads to conflict.

16. Luis did not understand why Fatima chose to cover her hair with a hijab, so he asked her. Fatima explained that the hijab was part of her culture and preserved her modesty. Rather than judging Fatima from his own culture, where women do not cover their hair, he learned why Fatima wore her hijab from her cultural point of view. Luis is using
a. conflict theory.
b. hegemony.
c. cultural relativity.
d. social structures.
e. ethnocentrism.

17. While most sociologists strive for cultural relativity, there is a danger when cultural relativity is taken too far.
a. We lose our own culture as we adopt the new culture.
b. We are likely to become ethnocentric.
c. We lose the ability to judge unacceptable behavior.
d. We may become over-socialized.
e. Our own culture becomes hybrid.

18. The American market dominates the globalization of culture for several reasons, including the size of our market, the wealth of our economy, and
a. the quality of our cultural goods.
b. the diversity within our market.
c. the democratic values of our culture.
d. the homogeneity of our culture.
e. the spreading value of consumption.

Socialization
19. Match the theorist to their theory:
George Herbert Mead The Looking Glass Self
Charles Horton Cooley The Dramaturgical Perspective
Erving Goffman Stages of the Self; the I and the Me

20. Children who are isolated and therefore not socialized often
a. thrive.
b. adapt to new circumstances.
c. eventually learn language and appear normal.
d. do not have status.
e. fail to develop attachments and may even die.


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