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     The uniform CPA exam is regarded as one of the most difficult professional exams, with a passing rate around 50% for all of the sections. However, attaining a CPA license will give you many opportunities in your career. The requirements for the CPA license vary by state, but they all include education (150 credit hours with basically a major in accounting), examination (it is the same exam for all states), and experience (1-2 years). You need the education (or at least a couple of months away from getting it) to sit for the exam, but you do not need the experience portion to sit for the exam. The sections of the CPA are: Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR), Audit (AUD), Regulation (REG), and Business and Economic Concepts (BEC). Thankfully there are many CPA review courses that will be extremely helpful to you as you prepare. Becker is the standard in the industry (the one I used), but it also the most expensive ($3,400). There are a lot of similarities in... read more

Hello Students!   Many of you that I work with soon realize that the flaw in your academic subjects is mostly because of bad study habits. I think it is important to stress as your courses get harder and grade levels progress, more active learning should be ocurring than passive learning. What is the difference between the two? Passive learning is reading a textbook, watching a movie/documentary, looking at pictures, or hearing a lecture while active learning is participating in discussion, teaching material, flashcards, testing yourself, simulating a similar experience and so forth. Really try to do active learning after you do some passive reading this way your material will sink into your head!   Good Luck and Study On!

This is advice that I always give to my students for the in-person classes that I teach. In order to excel in any subject that one is learning, it is important that you do the following: Go to class every day. Missing classes (whether they are in-person or online) is missing opportunities to learn! Do your homework. Complete the assignments that you are given. Instructors give assignments not to torture you, but to help reinforce what you learned in class. Remember, practice makes perfect. Practice what you've learned everywhere that you can. This is especially important for language learners. Read, write, and speak the language that you are learning at home and work. Take the extra time to make "self-assignments" and use what you know. Practice helps you progress faster. Keep a journal of what you learned. Learning journals are a wonderful tool as you can use them for both note-taking and motivation. Start by making a few short notes about what you... read more (Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004) The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. But the big bang theory can't survive without these fudge factors. Without the hypothetical inflation field, the big bang does not predict the smooth, isotropic cosmic background radiation that is observed, because there would be no way for parts of the universe that are now more than a few degrees away in the sky to come to the... read more

Fatty Acid Metabolism Explain how fatty acids are activated for degradation. Fatty acid activation occurs in the _______. Beta oxidation occurs in the ____________. Explain the transport system that shuttles fatty acids between these two cellular locations. Draw a diagram that summarizes beta oxidation. List the substrates and products of beta oxidation. For odd chain fatty acids, the end product is ____________ rather than acetyl-CoA. This product can be converted to _____________. Enoyl CoA Isomerase allows beta oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids to continue by shifting the location of a _________ bond. When does ketogenesis occur? Draw a diagram that summarizes ketogenesis. Where does fatty acid synthesis occur? Describe the reactions catalyzed by each enzyme during fatty acid synthesis: Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Fatty Acid Synthase Malonyl/Acetyl-CoA-ACP Transacylase... read more

Glycogen Metabolism Describe the structure of glycogen. Where is glycogen found in the body? Does it provide different physiological functions in each place? Describe the reactions catalyzed by each of the following enzymes during glycogen catabolism: Glycogen Phosphorylase Debranching Enzyme Phosphoglucomutase What are the energy requirements for glycogen catabolism? Describe the reactions catalyzed by each of the following enzymes during glycogen synthesis: Glycogenin Glycogen Synthase Branching Enzyme What energetically favorable hydrolysis reaction drives glycogen synthesis? How does the body avoid a futile cycle of glycogen synthesis and metabolism. Explain how epinephrine and glucagon regulate glycogen synthase. Compare insulin’s effect on glycogen synthase with its effect on glycogen phosphorylase. Webpages with multiple choice and study questions: http://faculty... read more

Hello Everyone,   Many parents that come to me treat their child's disability as a disease. They feel that the right thing to do, is find a cure. They are unaware that their child's disability is a sign of great gifts and talents. It is my job as a tutor and teacher, to guide parents and students as they unlock their child's hidden gifts and talents, while helping that child discover that they also can learn. 

Tutor lessons are always more fun when we drop the formal pretenses and airs and political-correctness and dare to be ourselves. If we allow growth through our efforts without forcing things, we become smarter and wiser learners. So, if you are serious about learning a foreign language, first things first: Don't be! What I mean by that is: 1) Too many Americans take themselves too seriously when it comes to intellectual challenges. They are too self-conscientious and afraid of making mistakes. Often, they are too concerned about appearances and not concerned enough about progress and positive change! So, you have to learn to accept that you will make mistakes when learning a language, and sometimes really stupid ones (relative to what you already know is correct). But that means 2) You have to learn to laugh at yourself and go with the flow. When you are willing to make a vociferous effort (i.e., speak out loud to practice the language) and hear yourself muddle through and... read more

When should a z-distribution be used and when should a t-distribution be used instead?   Below is an algorithm that can help to answer this question:   If the distribution is normal or approximately normal, Then         If the population standard deviation is known,         Then                use a z-distribution.         Else                use a t-distribution         End if Else {if the distribution is not normally distributed}         If the distribution is large (n>=30)         Then                If the population standard deviation is known,                Then                  ...

At BYOBook Club last month, we were discussing possible topics for the final meeting of the year. Someone suggested “The best book you've read all year,” which seemed to be well-received in the moment as an option. Since I'm participating in the Reading Challenge this year, I set myself the goal in January to read 50 books over the course of the year. (Right now I'm on book 45, so I'm right on track.) So I started thinking about it, talking with friends about how to choose a 'best' book, and I've realized that's a trickier question than I expected. For one thing, how do you define the 'best' book? The one you enjoyed the most? The one you're most likely to re-read? The one with the most well-crafted story? The one with the most interesting setting? The one you're most likely to recommend to a friend, regardless of genre or other interests? The best nonfiction vs. best fiction? What about the one you're most glad you read? This is a tricky question, to say the least,... read more

Have you ever received a graded essay handed back with the phrase, "Needs more structure," or "structure needs work?"   Creating a structure for any written word, whether it is poem, essay, news brief, or novel, is an integral part of the message you intend to convey. Using long, convoluted sentences as means to convince the reader that your argument is very simple will usually only give the opposite impression; simple arguments are best conveyed with short, simple sentences. (For example, the opposite is true in Jonathan Swift's essay, "A Modest Proposal," in which he uses didactic and complex language in an effort to "convince" the people of England that the solution to their hunger and poverty problem is to eat their starving infant children; his complex sentences reflect the sarcastic and satiric nature of his essay, reflecting that he does not see cannibalism as a real solution.)   Structure also helps you keep... read more

Learning a foreign language can be daunting, especially when you're a beginner and don't have the vocabulary to express yourself. Rote memorization works in the short term, but if that's how you're learning your vocabulary then your brain is more likely to forget the information later. I've studied a variety of foreign languages (though I'm not fluent in any of them (yet)): Spanish, French, Italian, and Mandarin Chinese. In all my years of study, I've only found one method that allows me to really internalize the words: Context.   The only way to really learn a new word is to use it in its own context. I'm not saying that saying, "Es un perro" (That is a dog) once will allow you to internalize "perro" (dog). You will need to use that word in context multiple times. One of my cousins lived in Spain for ten years, and she needed to use a word in context twenty (20) times before she had it down. For me, it depends on the word. If it's something... read more

Did you know students can request a copy of their ACT test multiple choice questions, their answers & an answer key within three months of taking the test? There is a $20 fee, but I think this is a pretty great deal! I’m working with a student right now, who ordered a copy of his questions and answers, and I can’t wait to take a look at it to see what types of questions he was most challenged by, so I can focus our tutoring sessions on these types of questions. I'm also planning to use the test to retest him on some sections. 

One of the main complaints that students have when struggling with their math homework is that they don't understand why they need to learn this in the first place.  After all, how often do we actually use calculus or trigonometry in our daily lives?   I always make an effort to correct this false assumption in my students.  Everything that we learn in math connects to reality in often unexpected ways.  For this reason, I like to find out what it is that interests my student, or what their career goals are, so that I may show them how the math connects.   Take the example of logarithms.  For the student with an ear for music, I can explain how logarithmic scales describe the relationships between musical tones, and true understanding of musical theory requires an understanding of this field of math.  For the student who plans to go into the medical field, logarithms can be used to help model the levels of medications in a patient's... read more

I have found it very useful to take walks when my Spanish tutoree gets worked up. When we walk we discuss things around in Spanish. For example, we learned colors the other week, so we walked around and she told me the colors of everything she saw around her in Spanish.

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