Standardized tests with reading comprehension components like to throw in inference questions. Their purpose is to see if you can understand how the author feels about a certain topic or if you can draw conclusions from information that is not presented directly in the text but which is implied.
When you're reading to answer inference questions, it's important that you understand the main ideas of the passage. Don't focus too much on the details. Then understand how the main ideas are connected. Look at the way the paragraphs are organized. Determine what the author's purpose is in writing the text. What are they trying to convince you of?
When you read an inference question, try to put it into your own words. This will help you to understand the question better. They may use phrases like "could be interpreted to say" or "hints/suggests that."
Read the text for words like "except" or "however" that indicate perhaps how the...
I thought I had secured students to tutor in Ormond Beach, Florida. I never did hear back after the initial contact. Maybe this blog post will clear things up a little. The first lesson is free of charge. Here is what to expect during the first lesson: I will meet the student and gather information from the student or the student's parent. I will need to know what textbooks the student is using etc. This first lesson is just a meeting so we can have a face-to-face first time meeting about the tutor/student relationship and agree whether or not to proceed. This first consultation visit is free.
I am looking forward to meeting with you.
Have a great day,
Years ago, there was never any dispute: when you listed a bunch of things in a sentence and finished with the word 'and ________.', there should always have been a comma before the 'and', i.e. "I have lived in France, Germany, Italy, and China."
The modern grammarians (is that even a word, haha) seem to think that the final comma should be omitted because they claim it is redundant. They claim that without the comma, everything should be adequately clear, for example: "I have lived in France, Germany, Italy and China." Is that really clear? I beg to differ, and for two reasons.
First, the comma's use is not just as a separator of things; it is also used as a pause device. Without the last comma, that sentence reads: "I have lived in France (pause) Germany (pause) Italy and China (said quickly together)." That's not correct at all and we all know it. It should read: "I have lived in France (pause) Germany (pause) Italy (pause)...
As the school year ramps up again, I wanted to put out a modified version of a Memo of Understanding
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memo_of_understanding for parents and students. It seems each year in the rush to get through the first weeks of school parents and students forget the basic first good steps and then the spiral downwards occurs and then the need for obtaining a tutor and then the ‘wish for promises’ from a tutor. Pay attention to your child’s folder or agenda book. A student is generally not able to self regulate until well into high school. Some people never quite figure it out. Be the best person you can be by helping your child check for due dates, completeness, work turned in on time. Not only will this help your child learn to create and regulate a schedule, it prevents the following types of conversations I always disliked as a teacher ("Can you just give my child one big assignment to make up for the D/F so they can pass"; "I am going to talk to...
For most fluent readers, it can be hard to imagine how the sight word "have" can be tricky for emerging readers. Yet many parents drilling the Dolch sight words find "have" is misread over and over again, made to rhyme with "gave" and "behave".
The child is likely making this mistake because he or she is diligently applying the guidance that a silent final E makes the preceding vowel say its name. And for many English speakers, that's the only purpose known for a silent final E. But, that only explains half of the words with a silent final E and has nothing to do with why there is a silent final E in "have".
So, why is there a silent final E in "have"? Check out rule #3 in the list posted here: https://www.logicofenglish.com/resources/spelling-rules. Rule 3 states that English words do not end in I, U, V, or J. The silent final E in "have" is there to prevent the word from ending in V, just as...
Writing is a skill. Just like with any other talents--being musical, athletic, artistic, some people are just better at writing than others. That doesn't mean you can't develop writing skills. It just takes more practice!
Many of my weak writers are excellent at math. I create formulas for a thesis, topic sentence, and each paragraph. If you can remember a formula, you can write an essay. I encourage daily reading. The more we read, the more vocabulary and sentence structure we are exposed to. This works its way into the brain, and enables recall when it comes time to write.
I also encourage my students to write about what they read. We do simple things like summarizing, list questions they may have, draw or describe the setting, predict what happens next, or even come up with an alternate title for the book. All of these things help people to become better readers, and that makes us good writers...
If you are struggling to encourage a reluctant reader to read for at least 30 minutes per day, this website may help. I began using this with Beginning English as a Second Language (ESL) students but have found that it also works well for K-6 readers as well. Here are the instructions for accessing this FREE site:
Go to http://larryferlazzo.com/englishbeg.html#stories
a. Under the heading marked Stories, click on Tumblebooks
b. Click on Tumblebook Library
c. Click on Story Books or Non-fiction Books
d. Choose a book and then click Read Online
A great new grammar book, "The Essentials of English Grammar in 90 Minutes" by Prof. Robert Hollander [Dover, $4.95] bridges the gap between basic grammar books (for both children and adults) and higher-level books such as the recommended "Essential English Grammar" by Philip Gucker, also from Dover Publications. This grammar book has almost no quizzes or charts, etc. but
will give you an over-all picture of not only basic, but higher level grammar. Please see my Amazon Review of this nice little addition to the grammar teacher's and learner's bookshelf.
EX: New Feature: Spelling /ay/ at end of word, as in play or stay.
Engaging guided discovery using magnets. Teaching spelling for a sound unit that has more than one spelling option requires imprinting with specificity. Guiding the student in a discovery experience, rather than ‘talking’ an explanation can accomplish this.
For example: There are many ways to spell the phonemic sound: long/a/. Where long/a/ comes at the end of a word like play, guided discovery technique using magnets is one recognized method for demonstrating to the student where the sound falls within the word, and on that basis, how to spell the sound when in that position.
In the word /play/, student pulls down one magnet for each phoneme (sound) heard (not the letter name). Student pulls down 3 magnets saying their individual sounds simultaneously to the movement of its corresponding magnet as follows: One magnet for /p/, one for /l/, and one for the long /a/ sound....
An article on math education in the NY Times (July 23, 2014) wrote this about our teacher quality and resulting education: " In addition to misunderstanding math, American students also, on average, write weakly, read poorly, think unscientifically and grasp history only superficially." I would like to focus on my area of English: writing and reading. The article discussed teacher training and techniques to improve teaching results. I would like to add that for us tutors also, techniques to present our subjects are critical to help students. Some tutors are former or current professional teachers; others may be retired people from business, housewives earning extra money, college students, or even working professionals in various fields. It's fine to teach business skills to graduate students if you are an executive, swimming to children if you are a swimming coach, or history to high schoolers if your major is history. Yet, simply tutoring in your major field may not be...
There are several points in grade school that involve a critical shift in the thinking that is required in the school work. Parent's should be aware of these points as they navigate through the abyss of raising a school-aged child and supporting the child as he/she moves forward through the grades.
3rd Grade - The third grader is transitioning from whole number thinking into understanding the concepts of parts. They are exposed to fractions, decimals and percentages. This is a major paradigm shift. Students are also exposed to long division at this point. Supporting children in this phase requires an emphasis on helping the child conceptualize whole things being split into parts. In addition to homework support, tutoring, and supplementary work, parents should introduce cooking chores to children at this time, and make them follow a recipe that has precise measurements. Reading comprehension and writing is also an issue here...
Hello everyone! Hola a todos!
Learning a second language like Spanish or ESOL can be boring and frustrating sometimes. You just get sick of reading your textbook or completing worksheets that your teacher gives you. But believe it or not...there are several ways to make learning a second language fun no matter what age you are! You're probably thinking right now..."how?" I'll tell you how. First, think of something that you like to do in your free time like listening to music, watching a movie or reading. Say if you really enjoy listening to music...look up one of your favorite genres and see what pops up for Spanish or English music in that genre. For example, Spanish pop/rock - the Colombian artist Juanes will pop up. Check out some of his songs on youtube. Once you find a song that you like, look up the Spanish lyrics online, print them out and then try your best at translating them into English. See if you can figure out what the song means because...
Many parents that come to me treat their child's disability as a disease. They feel that the right thing to do, is find a cure. They are unaware that their child's disability is a sign of great gifts and talents. It is my job as a tutor and teacher, to guide parents and students as they unlock their child's hidden gifts and talents, while helping that child discover that they also can learn.
Recently I had the opportunity to meet with a parent/business owner who hires/places tutors for high end families in my area. It was a wonderful opportunity as once again I heard the mantra, "Parents just want the grades to go up." I asked what this meant, how I could measure it (quantitatively and anecdotally) and if this was indeed proof of my skills as a tutor or a momentary 'save' on a reversal of fortune. This parent does not use Wyzant. I was hard pressed to accept from this parent the reason I wasn't being contacted by high end parents for tutoring was my lack of guaranteeing grades would go up, a promise I can not make in good faith as there are too many factors involved. Honesty and integrity should be important, not my sales ability.
In my years as a teacher and tutor, I have found once I have parents on board, the rest is EASY. Parents are the elephant in the room and I can run myself ragged (knowing full well very little if anything changes without parental...
Yes, there is a cure for dyslexia. However, the cure is unreachable for most students. Every child facing the dyslexia label needs an individual "toolbox" with unlimited learning supplies. Those "toolbox" supplies need to be (1) whatever teaching methods (even sometimes) make learning easier for that child, (2) unlimited access to educators whose primary concern is raising the student's self esteem, (3) a waiver from having to read aloud or do math problems in front of the entire class, (4) unlimited access to pictures, stories, and hands-on activities, (5) unlimited access to appropriate technology, (6) information broken into smaller parts and/or color-coded, (7) notes, formulas, word-banks, mnemonics, modified assignments, and (8) a total acceptance of outside the box (giving the student the benefit of the doubt) types of problem solving.
Educational challenges come in about as many shapes and sizes as there are children in schools. The "One...
Have you ever wondered what spelling bee champs know about spelling? I have, and my research led me straight to the
31 spelling rules as taught in the Logic of English method. These simple yet powerful rules explain 98% of English words when coupled with
74 phonograms. While that may not be enough to win an elite spelling bee, its a huge step forward for everyday literacy.
The 31 rules are posted here:
https://www.logicofenglish.com/resources/spelling-rules. While most are remarkably simple, they are quite powerful. Consider how the very first rule explains the answers to these tricky word equations:
picnic + ing = picnicking
notice + able = noticeable
Rule 1 states that "C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/." Thus, picnicking gets its K because without it, the word would say /picnising/. Likewise, noticeable retains its E because without it, the word would say /notikable/.
The most important academic skill a student can learn and possess is the ability to read. Even math skills depend upon reading skills. We may say something is as "easy as ABC," but in fact,
reading is one of the most complicated activities our brain can manage -- it connects symbols to sounds, words to memories, known patterns to predictions and inferences, and so on. Yet few students ever learn HOW they learn to read.
I want my students to recognize, learn and apply the skills they need to read well; with this information, they become better prepared to address reading challenges successfully on their own.
So how do we learn to read? Part of the answer comes from magnetic resonance imaging, interpreted by someone whose specialty is helping people with the greatest degree of difficulty reading. Sally Shaywitz, MD, is a professor at the Yale School of Medicine, and co-directs the world-renowned Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity. In her book,
English is widely regarded as being full of exceptions, and often logical/literal learners struggle with the ways in which it is commonly taught. Fortunately, though, there is logic to our language, and methods have been developed that carefully distill it into a limited number of spelling rules and phonograms. These concepts are quite simple to learn but very powerful in application, transforming English from a confusing jumble of exceptions to a deliciously rich and robust code.
An introduction to these concepts is posted at
The entire video is informative and inspirational, but if you’re pressed for time and want to sample some of the real meat of the content, jump ahead to the 20 minute mark and watch for about 8 minutes.
I'd love to hear what you think. Is this content helpful? Did you learn anything new? Please leave a comment below and share your thoughts.
As a special educator who has worked in the public schools and tutored privately, I've observed that all students learn best in an emotionally supportive environment. Most students with special needs have accumulated a long history of negative learning interactions over the years. They feel inferior to "better" students, they sense that teachers expect less of them, and above all, they are painfully aware of their parents' disappointment and anxiety. I have tutored students at very different grade levels and found many of them full of anxiety, to the extent that in some cases absolutely no work was accomplished due to emotional roadblocks. Why? The problem may be an emotional one to start with, or it may arise because by the time parents decide to pay for help from a professional, they have exhausted themselves trying to understand and explain why their child is blocked. An emotionally supportive environment, paradoxically, may not be the one in which they are most loved:...
Answer: at birth.
Just last week, I met a young man in third grade at a convention where I was exhibiting. In talking with this young man’s parents they disclosed that he was not reading well and struggled quite a bit. Since Dad was a late reader, they just figured their son would bloom into a reader, eventually, also. Though alarmed, I respected the parents’ belief.
I did relay some tips about reading skill development however, in hopes of enlightenment so they could guide their son’s reading success more. I offered a free modified reading assessment to provide a gauge for the parents of their son’s current grade level reading ability.
A shock to all…he screened at a pre-primer reading ability level in word call. His comprehension was good but was assessed at this pre-kindergarten grade level, after all.
Where should these parents start?
Phoneme awareness and sight word recognition leaped out first and foremost. This young man’s ability...