Who and whoever are subject forms and whom and whomever are object forms. These ‘annoying’ pronouns need to be tested in the clause to which they apply. A useful rule is to ignore all the words in the sentence up to who / whom and then consider only the next part of the sentence, rewording if needed. Test out the case required by substituting he / him or she / her (or they / them). For example: They will give the award to whoever / whomever deserves it. Cut the first part to leave: whoever / whomever deserves it. Replace who / whom with he / him or she / her: she deserves it. Since she deserves it sounds better than her, a subject is required, and whoever is correct. Note: Remove parenthetical expression (I think, we believe, it is said etc.) before testing who and whom. 9/26/2013 | Teague B.