***Students tend to depend on Pin Yin most of the time, which lends them to be unable to recognize the written language of Chinese; which are characters. (Generally when they first start learning the language)***
Students tend to need a full understanding of the four octaval-tone changes in the Chinese pronunciations taking conversational courses; outside of knowing the difference between English pronunciations and Chinese Letter pronunciations of the English letter system which formed Pin Yin in China.
The four tones need to be properly compared next to each other in a range of alphabet varieties in the combination of Pin Yin.
Some Letter challenges in sound:
C vs. K
X vs. Sh
Zh vs. Z (which is the same sound but lighter in tone when spoken.)
I vs. E
Spelling Pin Yin from dictations:
The predominant issue by far, is how to remember characters when a student is writing.
Each character has a tale behind it, and each word can have multiple stories for its roots.