The main piece of information you need to solve this problem is the ratio of tablespoons to cups: 16 tablespoons equals one cup. Now let's do the math:
Let's figure out how many cups of flour you would need for tripling the recipe: 3 cups of flour*3=9 cups of flour
Finally, we'll convert...

Parallel simply means that the two lines have the same slope. First, we'll put the given line into slope intercept form, to make things easy:
4x+2y=8
2y=8-4x
y=4-2x (or, in y=mx+b form: y=-2x+4)
The slope of this line (as well as the line you're solving for) is...

The way this sort of equation (i.e. one value multiplied by two values added together within parentheses) is you multiply the value outside the parentheses by each value inside, separately, and then add them together. As a simple example to demonstrate
how it works, we'll use 4(2+9)...