Diane, I'm sure you were given formulas for these quantities. Here they are again (π is the Greek letter pi):
C (circle) = 2 π r
A (circle) = π r2
V (cylinder) = At = π r2 t
Just plug in your values and round appropriately.

This rate is the ratio of the number of incomplete records and the number of discharges for the period.
rate = # incomplete / # discharges
= 234 / 1051

This looks like it should be a double-angle rule: sin(2x) = 2 sin x cos x
The double-angle rules derive from the sum formulas
sin (a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b and
cos (a + b) = cos a cos b - sin a sin b
by setting b = a
sin...

Delinquent record rate = # delinquent records / total discharges
= 561 / (3 * 1700)
...

This is an exercise in understanding, so it isn't truly a math problem. In my mind, the obvious fill-in is "panic".
Don't panic when you see the term "function".
I would extend that to
Don't panic over any concept in math.
Panicking doesn't help you understand...

Factoring polynomials is a matter of recognizing patterns, that is, common factors, and that takes practice, practice, practice.
Here are two ways to factor this polynomial:
f(x) = x3 + 3x2 – x – 3
= (x + 3) x2 – 1 * (x + 3) ...